What if, for example, we define, say Boris Johnson by what he can do – read Latin, ride a bicycle through traffic and play whiff-whaff, not by what he cannot do, say brush his hair or swim 1000m Frontcrawl.


'If we were to look at the whole of contemporary culture in the West culture as 
a kind of school and consider adult roles as courses in which we are enrolled, 
most adults have a full and demanding schedule'. Kegan (2006:39)

Piaget (1954) Assimilative or accommodative processes?

Understand your students so that you don't presuppose anything.

Learning for knowledge and skills, everyone will be challenge to improve the 
repertoire of their skills.

Not what I want to teach, but what, after assessment, they need to learn. No 
longer a flexible peg jumping through an institutional, departmental, academic 
or LD designed module, but a flexible peg and an accommodating hole.

No two people can possibly be learning the same thing, no matter what common 
assessment students undertake – the student with a disability, or disabilities, 
whatever these are and how they affect or impact on this individual – will be 
acquiring knowledge or a skill that has or is in some way transformed or 
translated, the focus diluted or pinpointed through a note–taker, reduced range, 
voice of an audio–reader, missing a lecture or seeing it from only one 
perspective, access denied or field or lab work excluded through their choices, 
risk assessment, health and safety, time, money, people and other such barriers 
– though sometimes enhanced if a live debate becomes an asynchronous forum or 
verbatim transcripts of audio and provided to all.

What is the disabled person's frame of reference?

Each learner's experience of learning and their relationship with the subject.  Kegan (2006:45)

Where the learner is coming from as well as where they are hoping to go in order 
to bridge the two – this applies to all learners whatever their circumstances.

Where the bridge metaphor is week is to visualise the physical person in transit 
rather than a myriad of billions of complex bridging actions occurring between 
neurones in the learner's brain. (Kegan, 2006:47) So a spidergram might be better, showing how 
close to a goal the learner is.

Not just knowing more, but knowing differently. (Ronald Heifetz, 1995)

Mezirow (2000) Transfer of authority from educator to learner. How rapidly will 
this transformational shift occur, which is a function of how far along they are 
on a particular bridge.

How do define an adult, self–directed learner?

Skill, style, self–confidence.

What if, for example, we define, say Boris Johnson by what he can do – read Latin, ride a bicycle through traffic and play whiff-whaff, not by what he cannot 
do, say brush his hair or swim 1000m Frontcrawl.

While what if I define X by what he cannot do – say, get up in the morning or speak in anything 
shorter than a paragraph, rather than what he can do, swim the Channel and 
empathise with others.

Need to read: Hegel, The phemonology of mind. 

This is why:

Hegel attempts to outline the fundamental nature and conditions of human 
knowledge in these first three chapters. He asserts that the mind does not 
immediately grasp the objects in the world, concurring with Kant, who said that 
knowledge is not knowledge of “things-in-themselves,” or of pure inputs from the 
senses. A long-standing debate raged in philosophy between those who believed 
that “matter” was the most important part of knowledge and those who privileged 

Kegan, R (2006) 'What "form" transformstions? A constructive-developmental approach 
to transformative learning. An abrdidged version of a chapter that 
appeared in Jack Mezirow et al. in 'Learning as Transformation' (2000). In 
'Contemporary Theories of Learning' (2009) Knud Illeris.

Mezirow, J. (2000) "Learning to think like an adult - Core concepts of Transformational Theory." IN J.Mezirow and Associates: Learning as Transformaton: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

Piaget, J. (1954) The Construction of Reality in the Child. New York: Basic Books.



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