Some more contemporary theories of learning – all stages including the workplace

Engestrom Y, (2006) Learning by expanding. An activity theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki. Orienta–Konsultit.

Expansive Learning. The idea of internal contradictions of change, with a model of learning activity based on horizontal, not vertical learning and ‘knotworking’ whereby the nodes and collective ownership of learning changes.

Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics for learning.

Learning that is top down and stems from:


Lave and Wenger (1991) Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge.

Learning comes about from participation in culturally valued practices in which something useful is produced – though participation and acquisition alone cannot be enough to make major change. Engestrom p61

Bateston (1972) Steps to an ecology of mind: collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution and epistomelogy. New York. Ballantine Books.

When it comes to learning on campus think about the ‘hidden curriculum of what it means to be a student’.

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