McAndrew, Goodyear, Dalziel
- Learning patterns
- Learning design
- Learning activities
‘The use of online and electronic systems to support learning – e-learning – is emerging as a field with new opportunities and problems.’
In advertising, marketing and corporate communications, the standard ‘Creative Brief’ used to inform and direct the creative team poses two initial questions, the answers to which focus the creative effort:
What is the problem?
What is the opportunity?
It is therefore refreshing and reassuring to find the same terms being used in relation to the ’emerging field’ of e-learning. i.e. it is a tool, a way of doing things that may be used to address a clearly defined problem … and in addressing this issues opportunities are created. The first enables the second, the second motivates ambition beyond the original problem.
Patterns, designs and activities are transferable, and therefore reproducible as digital objects (learning objects, etc
- Large scale digital repositories
- Flexible reuse
- Knowledge economy
Learning Object ‘any entity, digital or non-digital, that can be sed, re-used, or referenced during technology-supported learning.’
(Unsure how to differentiate the two. Learning at a uni, training at a poly? Learning in school , FE, HE & Uni … training at work?)
‘In practice, works in implementing Learning Objects in education (as distinct from training) tends to specialise the definition to refer to items that have education meaning, for example units that can result in a few hours of student activity.’
i.e. Learning objects …
‘Any digital or non-digital, with education meaning, that an be used, re-used, or referenced during technology-supported learning.’
The concept of patterns applied to learning seeks to identify what can be provided as useful background, guidance and illustration in describing a set of inter-related descriptions for ways to assist learning online. Patterns are not viewed as something that can be reused directly but rather as something that can provide the informed teacher with ‘rules of thumb’ as they build up their range of tasks, tools, or materials that draw on a collected body of experience.
IMS Learning Design
a formal language?
Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) – a software system that encourages the design of sequences of collaborative activities that use individual activity tools configured using a visual ‘drag and drop’ interface.
Ref Christopher Alexander on architecture and town-planning – to democratise architecture and town-planning by offering a set of conceptual resources that ordinary people could use in shaping or reshaping their environment.
Alexander, C. (1979). The Timeless Way of Building. New York. OUP.
‘His work provides a principled, structured but flexible resource for vernacular design that balances rigour and prescriptiveness by offering useful design guidance without constraining creativity.’
CF Long Compton Plan 1999 // Lewes Town Plan 2011
- diagrammatic representation
- linking paragraph
‘A pattern is a solution to a recurrent problem in a context.’
From Town Planning
A pattern ‘describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice.’
- to help constraint and communicate the nature of both problem and solution.
- to help the reader understand enough about a problem and solution that they can adapt the problem description and solution to meet their own needs.
- its name crystallising a valued element of the design experience.
‘The use of patterns, can be seen as a way of bridging between theory, empirical evidence and experience (on the one hand) and the practical problem of design.’
(When I start writing out the entire report I know it’s of value!)
‘In communities that have adopted the pattern approach, design patterns are usually drafted, shared, critiqued and refined through an extended process of collaboration.’
‘Educational design needs to be seen as a process in which a designer makes a number of more or less tentative design commitments, reflecting on the emerging design/artefact and retracting, weakening or strengthening commitment from time to time.’
‘Understanding the dynamic interplay between patterns in the mind and patterns in the world is key to seeing how and why design patterns work as aid to design. It is their ‘fit’ with the mind and the world that gives them power.’
‘The focus for our work is in task design, as this has the strongest analogy with the built environment where patterns are used to build concrete objects that activity then flows around in a way that cannot be entirely predicted.’
IMS Learning Design Specification
Educational Modelling Language (EML)
- to enable flexible representation of the elements within online courses.
- materials and the order in which activities takes place.
- the roles that people undertake
- services needed for presentation to learners.
‘How to package up the overall information into a structure that is modelled on a play, with acts, roles (actors) and resources.’
Of particular interest to someone who has written three screenplays, sold none, though had two short films produced … with one sold to Channel 4! Someone who is also a graduate of EAVE, taking a cross-platform interactive TV drama through the script development process. But of greater relevance a producer of some 135 training and information films, many drama reconstructions using professional actors, directors and writers.
– digital objects are gathered together with a manifest describing their location, but enhances the approach to give an ordered presentation of the different entities within the unit of learning.
Level A: roles, acts and the environment
Level B: adds properties and conditions
Level C: adds notification and messaging
http://www.unfold-project.net/ (UNFOLD PROJECT)
ref: Learning Activity Management System (LAMS)
e.g. ‘What is greatness?’
A’ Level history project.
N.B. One of the striking features of LAMS is the speed which new sequences can be created from an initial structure.
N.B. ‘Changes to the sequence structure are achieved via a simple drag and drop interface in which existing activities can be dragged into new locations, and new activities dragged into the sequence at an appropriate point.’
LAMS offers a complete system in three parts where first a design is produced in the author environment, using a visual sequence editor, then designs are instantiated with a particular class group (and subsequently tracked) through the monitor environment, and then designs are accessed by students from the learner environment. The modularity of the system allows each environment to be considered in its own right (not just as a unified whole), and particular focus has been placed on the author environment as a way to engage teachers in designing activities for their courses.’
An overall pattern language for learning.
‘In the ideal of patterns, flexibility and advice is valued over complete description and instantly usable output.’
McAndrew, P., Goodyear, P. and Dalziel, J. (2006) ‘Patterns, designs and activities: unifying descriptions of learning structures’, International Journal of Learning Technology, vol.2, no.2/3, pp.216-242; also available online at http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=10632&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or (Accessed 17 June 2010). (Revisited 26 Jan 2013)
Biographical notes: Patrick McAndrew is a senior lecturer in the Institute of Educational Technology at The Open University where he teaches and researches in the use of technology in support of learning. His work examines ways to design for active engagement by learners working together. This has involved studies in task based approaches to learning and their representation as learning designs within knowledge sharing environments. In 2001 he cofounded the UserLab research team which works within the Computers and Learning research group to undertake projects in e-learning.