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‘Blurring of the boundaries between school and college, formal and informal education, learning for work and learning at work.’

Notes from Kindle version on an iPad. Bias for H800 ECM with the emphasis on Forums and Mobile forms of learning.

Beetham, H and Sharpe, R. (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age: Designing and delivering e-learning.


Phase between ‘ICT-free’ past and its ‘ICT-aware’ future. L.289 Laurillard (2007)

Education is currently learning and adapting to the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies. Laurillard (2007)

There are learning objectives, on the one hand, to be achieved by the student, but also objectives set by society regarding higher education: ‘personalised learning, higher attainment standards, wider participation and improved retention in further and higher education, closer relationships between education and the workplace, lifelong learning, a more highly skilled workforce for our knowledge economy.’ L.295. Laurillard (2007)

The problem is that transformation is more about the human and organisational aspects of teaching and learning than it is about the use of technology. L322 Laurillard (2007)


Laurillard, D. (2007) in Beetham, H and Sharpe, (6) ‘Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: designing and delivering’.

Chapter 1

‘Blurring of the boundaries between school and college, formal and informal education, learning for work and learning at work.’ Beetham & Sharpe (2007:01)

Do we want to teach students, or for students to learn?

N.B. ‘Pedagogy before technology’ i.e. don’t use the technology for the sake of it. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:02)

What are the fundamental truths about how people learn?

New forms of literacy over ‘the acquisition of a stable body of knowledge.’ Beetham & Sharpe (2007:05)

Design involves:

· Investigation

· Application

· Representation or modelling

· Iteration

· Set clear expectations

· Provide engaging activities

· Key elements of practice, feedback and time for consolidation

· Assessment

· Simpler tasks prerequisites for more complex tasks

· Review

Beetham & Sharpe (2007:08)

Behaviourism = active learning-by-doing with immediate feedback on success, the careful analysis of learning outcomes, and above all with the alignment of learning objectives, instructional strategies and methods used to assess learning outcomes. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:16)

Not just activity, but ‘intellectual activity’


Piaget (1970) rather than by the absorption of information. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:17). NOT by osmosis, if on the periphery (Seely Brown) or learning ‘vicariously’ (Cox) it has to be with some level and kind of intellectual participation.

Rapid development of multimedia and hypermedia in the 1980s and 1990s.

Then delivery.

Since the Web, converged on communications ‘as a key-enabling construct’. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:18)

Situated and constructivist:

Learning must be personally meaningful. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:18)

Community of practice and the individual’s relationship with a group of people. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:18)

Learning as a cycle through stages with each cycle focusing on different perspectives. (Fitts and Posner 1968; Rumelhard and Norman 1978; Kolb 1984; Mayes and Fowler 1999) And iterative. Welford (1968)

As ‘Learning’ proceeds from novice to expert, the nature of learning changes profoundly and the pedagogy based on one stage (learning as behaviour, learning as the construction of knowledge and meaning, learning as social practice) will be inappropriate for another. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:21) Wherein lies the problem regarding use of technology, as students will often be at very different levels of expertise regarding the use of the tools.


Learners in the role of teachers of their peers. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:22)

Dichotomy: standardization through an institutional virtual learning environment (VLE) compared to empowering learners to take responsibility ‘to the point that they make their own design decisions’. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:21)

+Meaning through ‘engagements with the social setting and peer culture surrounding it’. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:22)

The internet gives every course in every institution a potentially global span. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:23)


Piaget, J. (1970) Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child, New York: Orion Press.

Fitts, C.J.H. and Posner, M.I. 1967 Human Performance, Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Rumelhard, D.E. and Norman, D.A. 1978 ‘Accretion, tuning and structuring: three modes of learning’, in J.W. Cotton and R.I. Klatzy (eds) Semantic Factors in Cognition, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kolb, D.A. 1984 Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Mayes, J.T. and Fowler, C.J.H. 1999 ‘Learning technology and usability: a framework and usability: a framework for understanding courseware’, Interacting with Computer, 11:485-97.

Welford, A.T. (1968) Fundamentals of Skill, London: Methuen.

Assessment should be in line with the individual’s learning objectives. How many of us are learning to be the writers of academic papers? Most are practitioners, many managers, I am a commentator. I want to be journalistic.

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