I love this simple, interactive guide to the Harvard Referencing System as if has every eventuality clearly covered – a bit late now to get to it 30 months AFTER I started my Masters with The Open University!
I had to get this right
McCall, M., Eichinger, R.W and Lombardo, M.M., 1996 The Career Architect Development Planner, 3rd edition (The Leadership Architect Suite).
Source: M. McCall, R. Eichinger & M. Lombardo, Princeton’s Center for Creative Leadership
I’d even give a link:
Programme Evaluation and Quality: a comprehensive guide to setting up an Evaluation System
Open and Distance Learning series from Kogan Page (1994)
I read this last in 2001. Whilst there are hints at e-learning the closest this gets to interactive learning is the video-disc and the potential for CD-Rom. Actually, there was by then a developed and successful corporate training DVD business. In 2001 the OU sent out a box of resources at the start of the course. 16 books and a pack of floppy discs I recall to loud ‘ListServe’ or some such early online collaboration tool.
Is ‘proesctismo’ really a word?
If not it’s an invaluable expression and warning.
‘Pruoectismo’, described by Rumble as ‘the elaboration of ambitious plans out of all proportion to the resources available’. (Daniel, 1989)
.i.e. recognising the realities if resource availability.
The nature of evaluation
- Identify an area of concern
- Decide whether to proceed
- Investigate identified issues
- Analyse findings
- Interpret findings
- Disseminate findings and recommendations
- Review the response to the findings and recommendations.
- Implement agreed actions.
There’s an approach to everything. When it comes to evaluation it helps to be systematic. At what point does your approach to evaluation becoming overly complex though? Once again, think of the time and effort, the resources and cost, the skill of the person undertaking the evaluation and so on.
Coming from a TV background my old producer used the expression ‘pay peanuts and you get monkeys’: skill and experience has a price.
Evaluation or assessment, of the course and of the student (in the UK), of the student in the US.
Improvement as a result of evaluation (Kogan 1989):
- Reduction in cost
- Equalization of access (this is now an entire Open University Module, H810: Accessible Online Learning: Supporting Disabled Students which will be my last to complete the MA in Open & Distance Education)
- Improvements in working conditions
- For whom the evaluation is being conducted.
The idea of summative versus formative evaluation i.e. the value of the course to achieve a task vs. aspects of the course that can be addressed and revised.
Anthropological vs. ‘agricultural-botanical’.
People are not plants.
An anthropological approach is required: Observe, interview, analyse, the rationale and evolution of the programme, its operations achievements and difficulties within the ‘learning milieu’. Partlett & Hamilton (1972)
CIPP (Stufflebeam et al 1971) evaluation by:
CONTEXT: Descriptive data, objectives, intended outcomes (learning objectives)
PRODUCT: Summative evaluation (measured success or otherwise)
UTILIZATION: None, passive and active.
There are other ways to quote from this chapter:
- Handwritten and transcribed
- Reference to the page but this isn’t an e-Book.
- Read out loud and transcribed for me using an iPad or iPhone
- A photo as above.
Does the ease at which we can clip and share diminish the learning experience? Where lies the value of taking notes from a teacher and carefully copying up any diagrams they do?
These notes the basis for homework (an essay or test, with an end of term, end of year then end of module exam as the final test?)
Daniel, J (1989) ‘The worlds of open learning’, in: Pained, N (ed) open Learning in Transition, London. Kogan Page.
Partlett, M and Hamilton, D (1981) ‘Evaluation as illumination: a new approach to the study of innovatory programmes. Originally published as a paper 1972 for University of Edinburgh Centre for Research in the Educational Sciences. in: Partlet, M and Dearden, G (eds), Introduction to Illuminative Evaluation: Studies in Higher Education, SRHE, University of Surrey, Guilford.
Books take up to much space, though as a record they may be longer lasting and more easily accessed than anything that is digitised
11 years ago I was reading ‘Open and Distance Learning Today’ (Lockwood, 1995) as part of the then Masters in Open and Distance Learning. The book, boxed up and stored for a decade is in mint condition. I took notes on A5 cards just as I might Tweet or Blog today (or tap out thoughts into IA Word a wordprocessing APP on the iPad.
From Mary Thorpe’s chapter on ‘The Challenge Facing Course Design’ pp175-184 I have picked out a sentence from Carugati and Gilly (1993)
‘Social context, roles and relationships are central to what is learned and how learning occurs, rather than merely a source of distorting effects on the learner-stimulus event’.
Of importance also:
I have also picked out, black ink on white card, a note from Dianne Laurillard (1993) who proposes a model of learning which requires both interaction and reflection by the learner and the provision of feedback from a teacher who is able to frame and reframe the content of teaching to take into account both subject matter and student response.
And from Schon (1983) ‘Reflection in action’ A kind of spontaneous research … instructional designs need to be made while instruction is under way’.
I could have blogged all of this and these notes and my thoughts would be as fresh and available as if I’d had the thought a moment ago.
Carugati, F and Gilly, M (1993) ‘The multiple sides of the same tool: cognitive development as a matter of social construction and meanings’, European Journal of Psycology of Education, (8)4.
Laurillard, D (1993) Rethinking University Teaching, London, Routledge.
Schon, D (1983) The Reflextive Practioner, London, Temple Smith
5th May 2012
‘What is the library, when the totality of experience approaches that which can be remembered?’ (Rausing, 2011:52)
Speaking at the Nobel Symposium ‘Going Digital‘ in June 2009 (that ironically took another 2 years before it was published0.
Things are gong to have to speed up in the new age of digital academia and the digital scholar.
We have more than a university in our pockets (an OU course), we have a library of million of books.
(I have an iPhone and iPad. I ‘borrow’ time on laptops on desktops around the house, libraries at work).
I’ve often pondered from a story telling point of view what it would be like to digitize not the libraries of the world, but something far more complex, the entire contents of someone’s mind. (The Contents of My Mind: a screenplay) It is fast becoming feasible to pull together a substantial part of all that a person may have read and written in their lifetime. (TCMB.COM a website I launched in 2001)
‘Throughout history, libraries have depended on destruction’. (Rausing, 2011:50)
But like taking a calculator into a maths exam, or having books with you as a resource, it isn’t that all this ‘stuff’ is online, it is that the precise piece of information, memory support or elaboration, is now not on the tip of your tongue, but at your fingertips.
Rausing (2011) wonders about the creation of a New library of Alexandria. I wonder if we ought not to be looking for better metaphors.
‘How do we understand the web, when this also means grasping its quasi-biological whole?’ (Rausing, 2011:53)
Tim Berners-Lee thinks of Web 2.0 as a biological form; others have likeminds. But what kind of growth, like an invasive weed circling the globe?
There are many questions. In this respect Rausing is right, and it is appropriate for the web too. We should be asking each other questons.
‘Do we have the imagination and generosity to collaborate? Can we build legal, organisational and financial structures that will preserve, and order, and also share and disseminate, the learning and cultures of the world? Scholars have traditionally gated and protected knowledge, but also shared and distributed it, in libraries, schools and universities. Time and again they have stood for a republic of learning that is wider than the ivory tower. Now is the time to do so again’. (Rausing, 2011:49)
If everything is readily available then the economy of scarcity, as hit the music industry and is fast impacting on movies, applies to books and journals too.
It seems archaic to read the copyright restrictions on this Nobel Symposium set of papers and remarkable to read that one of its authors won’t see their own PhD thesis published until 2020.
‘The academic databases have at least entered the digital realm. Public access – the right to roam – is a press-of-the-button away. But academic monographs, although produced by digitised means, are then, in what is arguably an act of collective academic madness, turned into non-searchable paper products. Moreover, both academic articles and monographs are kept from the public domain for the author’s lifetime plus seventy years. My own PhD dissertation,19 published in 1999, will come into the public domain in about 110 years, around 2120’. (Rausing, 2011:55)
The e-hoarder, the obsessive scanning of stuff. My diaries in my teens got out of hand, I have a month of sweet wrappers and bus tickets, of theatre flyers and shopping lists. All from 1978. Of interest perhaps only because 10,000 teeneragers in the 1970s weren’t doing the same in England at the time.
‘We want ephemera: pamphlet literature, theatre bills, immigrant broad sheets and poetry workshops’. (Rausing, 2011:51)
What then when we can store and collate everything we read? When our thoughts, not just or writings are tagged and shared? Will we become lost in the crowd?
‘What if our next “peasant poet,” as John Clare was known, twitters? What if he writes a blog or a shojo manga? What if he publishes via a desktop, or a vanity publisher? Will his output count as part of legal deposit material?’ (Rausing, 2011:52)
The extraordinary complex human nature will not be diminished; we are what we were 5000 years ago. It will enable some, disable others; be matter of fact or of no significance, a worry or not, in equal measure.
A recent Financial Times article agrees with Robert Darnton, warning that by means of the Books Rights Registry, Google and the publishing industry have created “an effective cartel,” with “significant barriers to entry.” (Rausing, 2011:57)
Much to ponder.
‘If scholars continue to hide away and lock up their knowledge, do they not risk their own irrelevance?’ (Rausing, 2011:61)
Allemansratt : Freedom to roam
The Cloud : A Simple Storage Service that has some 52 billion virtual objects.
Folkbildningsidealet: A “profoundly democratic vision of universal learning and education”?
Incunabula: “Incunabula” is a generic term coined by English book collectors in the seventeenth century to describe the first printed books of the fifteenth century. It is a more elegant replacement for what had previously been called “fifteeners”, and is formed of two Latin words meaning literally “in the cradle” or “in swaddling clothes”
Maimonedes : His philosophic masterpiece, the Guide of the Perplexed, is a sustained treatment of Jewish thought and practice that seeks to resolve the conflict between religious knowledge and secular.
Meisterstuecke : German for masterpiece.
Samizdat : An underground publishing system used to print and circulate banned literature clandestinely.
Schatzkammer : ‘Treasure Room’, and in English, for the collection of treasures, kept in a secure room, often in the basement of a palace or castle.
Ruasing, L(2011) (Last accessed 23rd May 2012) http://www.center.kva.se/svenska/forskning/NS147Abstracts/KVA_Going_Digital_webb.pdf )