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What do we know about learner-types by studying museum visitors ?
Fig.1. From the paper LISTEN: augmented audio-augmented museum guide (c) Andreas Zimmermann, Andreas Lorenz (2008)
This is a paper presentation at a conference of a museum visitor guide system that uses a combination of tracking/observation and audio-artifacts to create a personalized visitor experience. The paper reveals the extent of trials, tests and adjusts as well as evaluation which in turn offer ways that a proposal might be in the form of a presentation of the platform or a workshop that might assess how visitors are profile at the start of their visit.
Fig.2 One of the many multimedia moments at the ‘In Flanders Fields’ museum, Ypres. C. 2013 In Flanders Fields
I had in mind some kind of open, mobile personalized learning for use by visitors to military museums, perhaps national trust properties and even battlefields.
Each of these offer very differ user experiences and expectations though. A literary research reveals that the planning for visitors to an exhibition, collection of curated events or gallery is complex and the history of using technology to support visitor experiences is lengthy.
The research for conference papers is approached from two directions: the standard approach through the OU online library using terms such as ‘museum’ ‘elearning’ and ‘augmented’, while also drawing on personal knowledge of the many digital agencies based on the South Coast (profiles of these companies are available from the regional hi-tech association ‘Wired Sussex’).
Cogapp have been producing digital content for museums since the mid 1980s.
These and other agencies often present ‘papers’ at conferences, though the quality, in academic terms, of these presentations is sometimes questionable – is it promotion or is this the presentation of valid research?
Fig. 3 On Alcatraz. Following my audio guide, but too enthralled to be on site amongst a hubbub of people.
I can also draw upon a personal interest in museums, galleries, and other visitor attractions from national trust properties to battlefields all, or some of which, come with some kind of ‘guide’ – traditionally as a leaflet or guide book (Picasso Museum, Jean Miro), often with an audio guide (Alcatraz, Muir Woods, Royal Academy: Van Gogh, Bronzes), though increasingly from online resources with some attempts to use modern mobile devices (Design Museum, Tate Modern) or to personalize the experience (In Flanders Fields, Ypres). (Great North Museum)
There are major, global conferences on e-learning, some with an orientation towards, or significant presence from the museum sector. Over the last decade there has been considerable interest in improving, through personalization, the visitor experience.
The attraction of this paper, although it is limited to an audio platform whereas I had in mind something visual, the narrative from conception to testing, delivery and evaluation is thorough. It is insightful on studies of the museum visitor experience, curator relationships with artifacts, use and potential of audio and tracking/observation technology – both hardware and software (Zimmermann and Lorenz, 2008:391)
motion-tracked wireless headphones
individualized and location-aware soundscape
as well as content preparation and feedback on an iterative process.
These approaches will become increasingly sophisticated, discrete and effective for different visitor ‘types’, even reflecting how a person’s behaviour may change during the course of a visit. It is insightful to discover the degree of sophistication for understanding perception types (Zimmermann and Lorenz, 2008:391)
And visitor types:
A definition of personalized (Zimmerman and Lorenz, 2008:394)
Layers of information
Increasing levels of involvement
Pedagogical (Zimmermann and Lorenz, 2008:400)
considering the social context
McCarthy and McCarthy 2005 distinguish four types of learners:
Gardner 1993 identifies seven:
Veron and Levasseur 1983 determined visiting styles based on observations of animals (Zimmermann and Lorenz, 2008:404):
ants (following the curator’s path)
fish (holistic point of view)
butterfly (interest in all exhibits without following the curator’s path)
grasshopper (interest only in specific exhibits)
leading to the Macke Laboratory outputs of:
sauntering: the visitor is slowly walking around with an excursive gaze.
goal-drive: the visitor displays a direct movement with the gaze directed towards a specific artwork.
standing, focussed: the visitor is standing with the gaze directed towards a specific artwork
standing, unfocused: the visitor is standing or sitting with an excursive gaze
(Zimmermann and Lorenz, 2008:409):
- fact-orientated – putting a high eight on spoken text
- emotional – prioritizing music pieces and sound effects
- overview – focusing mainly in short sound entities
Arnone, M, Small, R, Chauncey, S, & McKenna, H 2011, ‘Curiosity, interest and engagement in technology-pervasive learning environments: a new research agenda’, Educational Technology Research & Development, 59, 2, pp. 181-198, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Boehner, K, Gay, G, & Larkin, C 2005, ‘Drawing evaluation into design for mobile computing: a case study of the Renwick Gallery’s Hand Held Education Project’, International Journal On Digital Libraries, 5, 3, pp. 219-230, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Bohnert, F, Zukerman, I, Berkovsky, S, Baldwin, T, & Sonenberg, L 2008, ‘Using interest and transition models to predict visitor locations in museums’, AI Communications, 21, 2/3, pp. 195-202, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Brugnoli, M, Morabito, F, Bo, G, & Murelli, E 2006, ”Augmented itineraries’: Mobile services differentiating what museum has to offer’, Psychology Journal, 4, 3, pp. 311-335, PsycINFO, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Cocciolo, A, & Rabina, D 2013, ‘Does place affect user engagement and understanding?Mobile learner perceptions on the streets of New York’, Journal Of Documentation, 69, 1, pp. 98-120, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Edwards, C 2013, ‘BETTER THAN REALITY?’, Engineering & Technology (17509637), 8, 4, pp. 28-31, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Forsyth E. AR U FEELING APPY? AUGMENTED REALITY, APPS AND MOBILE ACCESS TO LOCAL STUDIES INFORMATION. Aplis [serial online]. September 2011;24(3):125-132. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 5, 2013.
Gaved, M, Collins, T, Mulholland, P, Kerawalla, L, Jones, A, Scanlon, E, Littleton, K, Blake, C, Petrou, M, Clough, G, & Twiner, A 2010, ‘Using netbooks to support mobile learners’ investigations across activities and places’, Open Learning, 25, 3, pp. 187-200, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Jarrier, E, & Bourgeon-Renault, D 2012, ‘Impact of Mediation Devices on the Museum Visit Experience and on Visitors’ Behavioural Intentions’, International Journal Of Arts Management, 15, 1, pp. 18-29, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Marchetti, E, & Valente, A 2012, ‘Diachronic Perspective and Interaction: New Directions for Innovation in Historical Museums’, International Journal Of Technology, Knowledge & Society, 8, 6, pp. 131-143, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Mengmeng, L, Hiroaki, O, Bin, H, Noriko, U, & Kousuke, M 2013, ‘Context-aware and Personalization Method in Ubiquitous Learning Log System’, Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 16, 3, pp. 362-373, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
McAndrew, P, Taylor, J, & Clow, D 2010, ‘Facing the challenge in evaluating technology use in mobile environments’, Open Learning, 25, 3, pp. 233-249, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Semper, R, & Spasojevic, M 2002, ‘The Electronic Guidebook: Using Portable Devices and a Wireless Web-Based Network to Extend the Museum Experience’, ERIC, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
STOICA, A, & AVOURIS, N 2010, ‘AN ARCHITECTURE TO SUPPORT PERSONALIZED INTERACTION ACROSS MULTIPLE DIGITALLY AUGMENTED SPACES’, International Journal On Artificial Intelligence Tools, 19, 2, pp. 137-158, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Zaharias P, Michael D, Chrysanthou Y. Learning through Multi-touch Interfaces in Museum Exhibits: An Empirical Investigation. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society [serial online]. July 2013;16(3):374-384. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 5, 2013.
Zimmermann, A, & Lorenz, A 2008, ‘LISTEN: a user-adaptive audio-augmented museum guide’, User Modeling & User-Adapted Interaction, 18, 5, pp. 389-416, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.
Recommended: MIT’s sixth sense device. Do you know about it? Here’s a link to it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ig2RSID-kn8&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Your museum visit is mine
This is what I have been after. Tools that enhance the visitor experience while allowing further aggregation of that person’s visit to create a personal and constructed version of events. This ties into learning theories related to ‘cognitive construction’ rather than a behaviorist or didactic, spoon-fed, top down approach to learning. From a plethora of platforms will Google inevitably take over, translating the macro level Google Maps into micro level google guides? Much more from Google too.
At what point will people jostling to hold up their device interfere with the collective experience? How do you cater for those without one of these? The audio-guide or leaflet. Might content be produced to suit primary, secondary and tertiary visitors?
The limiting experience of the museum visit unleashed
A lifelong love in art galleries yet I still feel unmoved by galleries and museums, possibly because I expect the gentle, guiding voice of my late mother at my shoulder (artist, art historian, Mum).
What could be a more personalised visit than to have someone who knows you so well point things out, guide you to things that will interest or irritate, then offer an insight – invariably linked to ‘what do you do next?’ i.e. look, learn then apply.
Why lifelogging as total capture has less value that selective capture and recall.
Beyond Total Capture. Sellen and Whittaker (2010)
Abigail Sellen and Steve Whittaker
Abigail J. Sellen (firstname.lastname@example.org) is a principal researcher at Microsoft Research in Cambridge, U.K., and Special Professor of Interaction at the University of Nottingham, U.K.
Steve Whittaker (email@example.com) is a research scientist at IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA.
may 2010 | vol. 53 | no. 5 | communications of the acm 77
You read about people looking at ways to capture everything – to automatically lifelog the lot. They constantly look for new ways to gather and store this data. What’s the point? Because they can? Who are they? Is it a life worth remembering? And do we need it all?!
Far better to understand who and what we are and use the technology either to ameliorate our shortcomings, aid those with memory related challenges and tailored to specific needs captured moments of worth.
There’s ample literature on the subject. I’m not overly excited about revolutionary change. It is as valuable, possibly more so, to forget, rather than to remember – and when you do remember to have those memories coloured by perspective and context.
My interest is in supporting people with dementia and cognitive difficulties – perhaps those recovering from a stroke for whom a guided path of stimulation into their past could help ‘awaken’ damaged memories. If lives are to be stored, then perhaps grab moments as a surgeon operates for training purposes, recreate a 3:1 tutorial system with AI managed avatars so that such learning practices can be offered to hundreds of thousands rather than just the privilege, elite or lucky few. Use the device on cars, not people, to monitor and manage poor driving – indeed wear one of these devices and see your insurance premiums plummet.
What does it mean to support human memory, rather than capturing everything.
Despite the device SenseCam stimulate memories are as quickly forgotten as any other.
Whittacker 2010 – Family archives of photos are rarely accessed
Of less value than the considerable effort to produce these archives justifies.
- Can’t capture everything
- Need to prioritise – selectivity (as SwimTag and swim data)
- Memory taxonomies
- Quick and easy to use better than accuracy – good enough
- Cues not capture – the data cues memories that are different to the image captured.
- Memory is complex
Play to the strengths of human memory, help overcome weaknesses.
Incorporating the psychology of memory into the design of novel mnemonic devices opens up exciting possibilities of ways to augment and support human endeavours.
Sellen, A. J., & Whittaker, S. (2010). Beyond total capture: a constructive critique of lifelogging. Communications of the ACM, 53(5), 70-77.
Whittaker, S., Bergman, O., and Clough, P. Easy on that trigger dad: A study of long-term family photo retrieval. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 14, 1 (Jan. 2010), 31–43.
- Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People (mymindbursts.com)
- Automatically assisting human memory: (mymindbursts.com)
- Memoto Lifelogging Camera (gadgetizeme.wordpress.com)
- Exercise can slow onset of Alzheimer’s memory loss, study reports (medicalxpress.com)
- How to Make a Memory Book (answers.com)
- Magical mystery machine: How Memoto’s lifelogging camera could change our memories (pandodaily.com)
Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People
Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People
In the pursuit of pervasive user-generated content (ugc) based on senors, by augmenting visual lifelogs with ‘Web 2.0’ content collected by millions of other individuals.
We present a system that realises the aim of using visual content and sensor readings passively captured by an individual and then augmenting that with web content collected by other individuals. Doherty and Smeaton (2009)
- Lifelogging, like keeping a diary, is a private and exclusive form of reverse surveillance. Doherty and Smeaton (2009)
- Using SenseCam from Microsoft. Zacks (2006)
- human memory operates by associating linked items together. Baddley (2004)
- supportive of those patients suffering from early stage memory impairment. Berry e al (2009)
- enhancing SenseCam gathered images by data mining from ugc sites such as Flickr and YouTube. Doherty and Smeaton (2009)
- See also MyLifeBits. Bell and Gemmel (2007)
- A commercial lifelogging product ViconRevue. OMG
- Flickr has over 95 million geo-tagged images. (2010)
- YouTube has 100 million video views per day (2010) YouTube fact_sheet
It has a camera and a range of other sensors for monitoring the wearer’s environment by detecting movement, temperature, light intensity, and the possible presence of other people in front of the device via body heat.
(I’d like the sensecam to be smaller still and include a microchip in a swimmer’s cap, or goggle or swimsuit to monitor various other factors, including heart rate, blood sugar levels and carbon dioxide).
How the mind disects, stores and correlates the information if gathers is somewhat different to the linear recording or cataloguing of current systems though.
After her first stroke a patient found engagement when otherwise unable to communicate by looking at family photographs on an iPad. After a second stroke the same patient, deemed incapable of comprehension or communication, responded to hundreds of images of paintings she had known in her lifetime – in particular responding to the question posed when looking at one painting. Where is it? Ans; Louvre. What is it? Mona Lisa. (Vernon, 2012)
As sensing technologies become more ubiquitous and wearable a new trend of lifelogging and passive image capture is starting to take place and early clinical studies have shown much promise in aiding human memory. Doherty and Smeaton (2009)
Fig.1. A game of pairs – our minds are far more interprative, chaotic and illogical when it comes to visual associations based on what we see around us.
However, it is presumptious, prescritpive and even manipulative to assume that a person recalls ‘more of the same’ when visualing sensing or surveying a place. The foibles of the human mind and system is that noises and smell, the temperature and weather, and the time of day have a part to play. I visit Trafalgar Square and smell pigeons even though they are long gone. I visit Buckingham Palace and recall finding a woman dead on the pavement one late evening. I see snow and think of the broken leg I got from skiing in my teens – not snowmen. I see any icecream van and think specifically of Beadnell Bay, Northumberland.
The mind is far, far more complex than a fancy game of ‘pairs’. I have perhaps 30,000 of my own images online, so why support, replace or supplement these with those taken by others? What if during my lifetime I tag, link and assocaite these images? How might these be linked to another personal log – a diary of some 2.5 million written over a 30 year period?
There are research challenges involved in further improving the quality of the lifelog augmentation process, especially with regard to “event-specific” lifelog events, e.g., football matches, rock concerts, etc. Other research challenges include investigations into selecting initial seed images based on adaptive radii, more sophisticated tag selection techniques, and also considering how interface design and varying methods of visualisation affect users’ acceptance of augmented data.
Baddeley, A., Ed. Your Memory: A User’s Guide; Carlton Books: New York, NY, USA, 2004.
Bell, G.; Gemmell, J. A digital life. Scientific American Magazine, March 2007.
Berry, E.; Hampshire, A.; Rowe, J.; Hodges, S.; Kapur, N.; Watson, P.; Smyth, G.B.G.; Wood, K.;
Owen, A.M. The neural basis of effective memory therapy in a patient with limbic encephalitis. J.
Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 2009, 80, 582–601.
Doherty,.R. and Smeaton.A.F. (2009) Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People
Vernon, J.F. (2012) Use of hundreds of image grabs of contempary artists, Leonardo da Vinci and Van Gogh to communicate with an elderly patient after a series of catastrophic and ultimately fatal strokes.
Zacks, J.M.; Speer, N.K.; Vettel, J.M.; Jacoby, L.L. Event understanding and memory in healthy
aging and dementia of the alzheimer type. Psychol. Aging 2006, 21, 466–482.
- Can Lifelogging Devices Augment Our Memories? (techonomy.com)
- Magical mystery machine: How Memoto’s lifelogging camera could change our memories (pandodaily.com)
- With Memoto, Affordable Passive Lifelogging Has Arrived (refer.ly)
- Our Digital Selves (nytimes.com)
- Memoto life-logging camera delayed (but gains digital compass) (slashgear.com)
Making swim coaching a tad easier with SwimTag
Fig. 1. A plethora of session plans – what a year of elite swimming training looks like
Swimtag today, skitag tomorrow
Serendipity had me click on Swimtag and I’m hooked – as a swimmer and coach, but for the purposes of this note as a prospective PhD student looking for a research project for the next three years.
Fig. 2 . Swimtag
My interest is in e-learning, sport and virtual assistants / augmented learning.
Armed with a set of swimtags I’d like to research their use with a range of swimmers: masters, elite athletes, learn to swim and swimmers with disabilities. We have all of these in our 1000+ member swimming club Mid Sussex Marlins SC. Early days – I have only just completed a Masters in Open & Distance Education and am tentatively speaking to potential supervisors at the Open University, Oxford Internet Institute and Web Sciences at Southampton University with a view to submitting a doctoral research project in the next couple of months.
My vision is how swimtag becomes as commonplace as swim goggles, then translates into other sports and other fields, including business, but also as a potential prosthesis for people suffering from dementia or memory loss so potentially tied into other data capture devices.
I am seriously looking at funded PhD research for the next 3/4 years.
I am interested in e-learning, so Learning & Development particularly for v. large organisations. There is a groundswell of interest in devices/software that enhance or support memory and learning. There is a fertile crossover between health – providing support say to those who would benefit from cognitive support, what we call ‘lifelogging’ – so gathering pertinent data about the world around you, then using this in an artificially edited form (using Artificial Intelligence algorithms) to supplement memory loss or to enhance learning potential as a virtual companion. Those recovering from a stroke or with dementia included.
It may sound like science fiction but people have been working on these ideas for a decade or more.
I appreciate that simply tagging vulnerable people who may wander off and not know how to find their way home is one way to support but I’m thinking about quality of life and facilitating memory and communication too.
- Pause (mymindbursts.com)
- Deaf Olympic Swimming Hopeful Marcus Titus Makes History (healthyhearing.com)
- Try not to push (andreabadgley.com)
Why you need to make time to see and understand ‘digital memory’ at the Design Museum
Fig.1. Enthralled at the Design Museum
Learning, memory and inspiration fascinate me. This exhibition sponsored by Sworovski intrigued me enough online to pay a visit. The online notes and video clips were enough to get me there – the actual experience drew me in. On their own these items that designers created on the theme of ‘digital memory’ may confuse and not draw you in – listen to the designer talk about their experience of dealing with the topic, their journey and inspiration and very quickly a kind of magic takes place – you are let in on their world, you see into their mind, their construction of this piece. Most work, that is something like 11/16 pieces. If I come away from a visit to a gallery or museum and find ONE thing to inspire me I am pleased. Here I felt, eventually, overwhelmed. Rather like the first time I stepped into the Bodleian Library – millions of minds just a fingertip touch away.
Never have I walked through a museum and series of exhibits before and criss-crossed back and forth recording everything. I came away with over 400 pics … all on the iPad. I expect to frame a picture on an A5 sized pad now. And it fits into a bag far more easily than an SLR camera.
I should now create a visual narrative, more Flickr, Tumblr, Instagram or Pinterest than this WordPress layout. No doubt I will in time migrate some of the pictures to all of these platforms where I have a presence as ‘my mind bursts’.
Even the shop deserved a photo journey – though I supposed what I am meant to do is buy stuff. Perhaps we should be able to download eBooks to whatever device we pull out as an alternative to the hard copy?
More, much more to follow
All images in Picasa so could link and share – or spread to my Google+ circles.
The word that tickles the back of my head is ‘augmented learning’.