Home » Posts tagged 'handy'

Tag Archives: handy

Why learning in business is becoming fluid and lively – the relationship between the academic and the student has flipped.

Henry Mintzberg_1238926097279

Henry Mintzberg_1238926097279 (Photo credit: Personeelsnet)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.1. Henry Mintzberg

Drawing on a business model, the development of a more organic structure that is less hierarchical, as envisaged by Mintzberg (1994), seems appropriate; it complements what authors such as John Seely Brown say about ‘learning from the periphery’ too.

Adhocracy

Fig.2. Part of a mind-map created while preparing for a written exam on ‘Creativitiy, Innovation and Change’

Characteristics of an adhocracy (Waterman, 1990; Mintzberg, 1994; Travica, 1999):

  • highly organic structure
  • little formalization of behavior
  • job specialization based on formal training
  •  a tendency to group the specialists in functional units for housekeeping purposes but to deploy them in small, market-based project teams to do their work
  • a reliance on liaison devices to encourage mutual adjustment within and between these teams
  • low standardization of procedures
  • roles not clearly defined
  • selective decentralization
  • work organization rests on specialized teams
  • power-shifts to specialized teams
  • horizontal job specialization
  • high cost of communication (dramatically reduced in the networked age)
  • culture based on non-bureaucratic work

Fig. 3. Handy’s Shamrock (1989)

The advantage of a flexible organisation is that it can react quickly to a change in its external environment.

Since the 1990s, firms have examined their value chain and tried to reduce their workforce to a multi-skilled core, which is concerned with the creation or delivery of a product or service. All other supporting, non-central functions are outsourced wherever possible to the periphery.

Charles Handy suggested, however, that organisations do not consist of just the Core and the Periphery, since the periphery can be subdivided.

He calls this a shamrock organisation:

The first leaf of the shamrock represents the multi-skilled core of professional technicians and managers, essential to the continuity of the business

The second leaf Handy calls the contractual fringe, because non central activities are contracted out to firms specialising in activities such as marketing, computing, communications and research

The third leaf consists of a flexible workforce made up of part-time, temporary and seasonal workers.

REFERENCE

Brown, John Seely (2007) Exploring the potential of Web 2.0 techniques and applications in higher and distance education, informal and lifelong learning

Handy, C (1989) The Age of Unreason

Mintzberg, H (1994), The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconceiving the Roles for Planning, Plans, Planners, Free Press, pp. 458, ISBN 0-02-921605-2

Travica, B (1999) New Organizational Designs: Information Aspects, Ablex/Greenwood, ISBN 1-56750-403-5, Google Print, p.7

Waterman, R. H. (1990). Adhocracy: The power to change. The Larger agenda series. Knoxville, Tenn: Whittle Direct Books.

Development and Learning

This chapter is on ‘Development and learning

This forms part of the read for block one of the MBA module ‘Creativity, Innovation and Change’ with the OU which I am taking as an elective for my Masters in Open and Distance Education (MAODE).

TO LISTEN TO: CD, Audio 8 ‘Developing Participation’

Box 9.1 (To add if copyright permits) TO ADD

The comparison to the Romans doing nothing for us is surely disingenuous, nor do I think it historically accurate to presume that the ‘better slaves’ were exported. It may show how a civil society may implode and become vulnerable to the brutish invasion of the less civilised.

How do you cement change?

  • Beneficiaries
  • Champions
  • Informed
  • Motivated
  • Financed

Other examples of where great civilisations have left no trace. But they many have: Romans, Greeks, Normans, Vikings (not even a great civilisation), no so sure about the Maya or Incas.

(Kotter et al are mentioned more than once but no reference given. Probably ‘Marketing: an introduction 2006) Adapted from J Brooker, Creative Gorilla online newsletter 2005. Here’s a link.).

9.2 CONCEPTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT

  • Team Forming  (Henry, 2006:189)
  • Forming and storming in which members establish their identities (Tuckman, 1965)
  • Establish group norms and practices.

‘Only after people feel recognised and norms are agreed is the group likely to perform well.  (Henry, 2006:189)

A problem to solve:

  • Problem exploration
  • Idea generation
  • Implementation
  • Analyse the situation
  • Define the problem
  • Develop options
  • Select a strategy
  • Develop an action plan

Parallel and sequential activities required for new product development.

Personal development:

  • Piaget (1929) referred to often and read for the MAODE (Masters in Open and Distance Education, with the OU)
  • Erickson (1959)
  • Maslow (1962)
  • Kohlberg (1969)
  • Perry (1970)

Development of society, civilisations, agriculture, and industrial.

‘It is possible to subdivide the onotogenetic and phylogenetic stages differently’ . (Henry, 2006:190)

  • Ontogentic means: ‘The origin and development of an individual organism from embryo to adult’.
  • Phylogenetic: ‘Relating to or based on evolutionary development or history: a phylogenetic classification of species’

(See Reader, Henry’s chapter on Creative Management and Development … Actually that’s ‘Creativity, Management and Well-Being’.

ACTIVITY 9.1

IMAGINE WRITING YOUR OWN OBITUARY. WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE REMEMBERED FOR BY YOUR COLLEAGUES, FRIENDS AND FAMILY?

This reminds me of a Nelson Bolles activity, from ‘What Color’s your parachute?‘ I recall writing the ‘good husband, loving father’ thing.

Level of or lack of control, rather than more or less hours worked is what matters. (Henry, 2006:193)

ACTIVITY 9.2

WHAT METAPHORS FOR DEVELOPMENT DOMINATE THINKING IN YOUR ORGANISATION – FOR EXAMPLE, GROWTH AS PARTNERSHIP OR ACQUISITION?

Can they be thought of as:

  • Relationships (colleagues, mentor, coach or buddy)
  • Iterative cycles
  • Balancing views

GROW

  • Goal (identify a desired goal)
  • Reality (checking reality, enumerating options to move nearer the goal)
  • Who/What/Whom (identify what specific actions are required, commit to a time for action.

APPENDIX A

SEVEN ACTIVITIES TO APPRAISE AND PLAN GOALS

Whitmore (2002)

ACTIVITY 9.3

NOTE DOWN THREE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF YOUR ADULT LIFE, i.e. The experiences that have taught you the most.

I do wonder!

  1. My late father’s death and being an executor of his will with his fourth wife. I should not have gone near the thing as it scrambled my head for at least three years. I have to learn to say ‘No!’ I was neither professionally nor emotionally up to it.
  2. Engestrom’s ‘Activity Systems’ I think I get it, the representation of something complex such as knowledge creation or idea generation as a result of people or groups participating to solve a problem. My approach is to read references until in this case I got a book that made sense ‘From Teams to Knots’ with case studies that included live TV production.
  3.  Producing ‘Which Firm of Solicitors?’ and directing it, indeed the entire entrepreneurial package (book, video, distribution) setting up a production company, raising the finances, turning a profit and repeating the exercise two years later.

Handy (1991) major learning experiences are usually precipitated by new and unexpected challenges and crises. (Henry, 2006:196)

Indeed, though my inclination to put my energies into something new each time may be less productive.

Three forms of learning:

  • Making good deficiencies
  • Unlearning assumptions
  • Co-learning with others

Knowledge is situated. ‘someone from the private sector may lack the necessary public-sector management knowledge‘. p 196

Our brains are plastic and store information in idiosyncratic ways that are peculiar to ourselves. (Henry, 2006:197)

I say!

Some people are naturally better at certain ways of working than others.

Gardner (1993) people may have a surfeit if one and a deficit if another.

  • Linguistic
  • Logical-mathematical
  • Visual-spatial
  • Musical
  • kinesthetic
  • intrapersonal
  • Interpersonal

P.198 ‘Our intelligence, temperament, cognitive style and motivation combine to give us certain strengths and weaknesses. The spontaneous may be adaptable but possibly not so organised’.

‘Struggling in a job that does not allow you to use your strengths and asks you to employ skills that are not natural to you, especially for long periods of time, is difficult for anyone. It can also be soul-destroying’.

ACTIVITY 9.4

WHAT WOULD YOU SAY ARE YOUR STRENGTHS? RATE YOURSELF ON EACH OF THE FOLLOWING ON A SCALE OF 1 TO 10.

Note your five highest scores: these are your strengths as you perceive them. What do others think?

  • Perceptive                 10
  • Humorous                  3
  • Energetic                 7
  • Leadership                5
  • Decisive                       6
  • Open                         9
  • Courageous         3-7 it depends on my mood 🙁
  • Team Player            2-8 it depends on the game!
  • Diligent                   3-9 it depends on if I have given myself the time or the role that I am playing. I can proofreader the work of other people but not my own.
  • Appreciative          7
  • Disciplined               5 it depends on the context and there being one project nor two dozen.
  • Loyal                        4 Where recognised, my motivations are intrinsic.
  • Ingenious                9 given half a chance
  • Sincere                   10 too much so
  • Calm                             2 things worry me. I need to be part of the right team, or have the right team around me.
  • Empathetic                       7
  • Practical                         2 I struggle with the Freeview box that’s gone wiring and still don’t get Google+ but I can put up a fence and change a light-socket.
  • Fair                                    7
  • Stoical                              4
  • Generous                          2-8 hit and miss
  • Wise                                    1-9 it depends with whom and where, context is everything.
  • Modest                              2 I guess I’m not.
  • Prudent                             1 I don’t suppose I am having just dine this exercise
  • Forgiving                              1 I guess not as my father and two of my stepmother’s will never be forgiven.

How many of your strengths or weaknesses are you called upon to use regularly at work?

Of the above? Six.

 ‘If personal and professional development were modelled on the practices found among adults who are functioning particularly well, we might spend rather more time encouraging employees to pursue their interests actively, have fun and develop their support network, rather than asking them to reflect on their problems, skill deficiencies and learning points. Successful creative people are also known to pursue activities they enjoy. (Henry, 2006:199)

I believe I am highly perceptive and can get the measure of a communications problem quickly.

Unlearning and deconstruction.
(see Argyris in the Creative Management and Development reader).

NASA Challenger disaster.

ACTIVITY 9.5 PICK ONE OF THE
PRECEPTS LISTED OR CREATE ONE OF YOUR OWN. LIVE BY IT FOR A WEEK.

‘Yes or No’

I have to group my week’s work as one or the other then get on and deliver on what I have promised.

Much if our learning occurs as we build on ideas we glean from others. (Handy, 2006:202)

Group-based learning:

‘Knowledge emerges from relationships amongst connected people’.

  • Action learning
  • Focus groups
  • Quality circles
  • Creative problem solving
  • Participatory rural appraisal

‘This kind if learning happens informally’: at the bar, over lunch or in the kitchen, travelling to or from a meeting or conference.

REFERENCE

Lissack, P., and Richardson,K.A. (2003) ‘Models without morals: towards the ethical use of business models’. Emergence, Vol.5, No. 2, pp. 72-103

Gardener, H, (1993) Frames if Mind: Theory of Multiple Intelligences, 2nd edn London. Fontana.

Henry, J and the course team (2006, 2010) ‘Creativity, Cognition and Development” Book 1 B822 Creativity, Innovation and Change.

Shiva, V. (1993) Monocultures of the mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology, London/Atlantic Heights NJ/Penang: Zed Books.

Tuckman, B.W. (1965) ‘Development sequences in small groups’, Psychological Bulletin, Vol.6, pp. 384-99

Whitmore, J (2002) Coaching for Performance, 2nd edn., London: Nicolas Brearley.

%d bloggers like this: