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Tag Archives: instructional design
Associative/ Behaviourist approaches
Looking for observable behaviour
Explicitly mentioning course outcomes
Ability to test achievement of learning outcomes
Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Decomposing learning into small chunks
Routines of organised activity
Learning hierarchies (controversial!)
Sequencing learning materials with increasing complexity
Giving direct feedback on learning
Individualized learning trajectories
Cognitive psychology (constructivism)
Types of memory (sensory – short term – long term)
Maximize sensations: strategic screen layout
Research on memory, perception, reasoning, concept formation.
Maximize sensations: well-paced information
Learning is active
Maximize sensations: highlighting main elements
Learning is individual (knowledge construction)
Relate difficulty level to cognitive level of learner: providing links to easier and more advanced resources
Use of comparative advance organizers
Use of conceptual models
Importance of prior knowledge structures
Pre-instructional & prerequisite questions
Experimentation toward discovery of broad principles
Promote deep processing
Use of information maps zooming in/ out
Cognitive Apprenticeship (Brown et al, 1989)
Interactive environments for construction of understanding
Metacognition (reflection, self-regulation)
Relate to real-life (apply, analyse, synthesize)
Learning styles (controversial!)
Address various learning styles
Let students prepare a journal
Dual coding theory
Use both visual information and text
Motivate learners (ARCS model)
Use techniques to catch attention, explain relevance, build confidence and increase satisfaction
Situated learning (constructivism)
Personal knowledge construction
Personal meaning to learning
Situated learning: motivation
Relate to real life (relevance)
Holistic/ Systemic approaches
Conduct research on internet
Build confidence with learners
Use of first-hand information (not filtered by instructor)
Communities of Practice (Lave & Wenger)
Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky)
Fostering the growth of learning communities
Learning as act of participation
Legitimate (peripheral) practice, apprenticeships
Authentic learning and assessment tasks
Learning in network environment
Keep up-to-date in field
Build diversity, openness in learning (different opinions), autonomy
Personal Learning Environment
|self-directed learning, just-in-time|
Constructivism – Jonassen et al 1999
Social Constructions – Vygotsky 1986
Activity Theory – Engeström et al 1999
Experiational Learning – Kolb 1984
Instructional Design – Gagné et al 2004
Networked and collaborative work – McConnell 2000
Learning Design Jochems et al 2004
Primary: presenting information
Secondary: active learning and feedback
Tertiary: dialogue and new learning.
- Module 3 – Learning and Technology Theories Reflection (natalieedit202.wordpress.com)
- Learning Theory (downes.ca)
- Learning Theory – What are the established learning theories? (miracletrain2013.wordpress.com)
- Learning Theories and Technology (daniellegroten.wordpress.com)
- Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age (gamedynamics.wordpress.com)
- Social Constructivism (s4323697.wordpress.com)
|From E-Learning V|
Fig.1. Grainne Conole’s 7s of Learning Design
7Cs is an OU with OU Learning Design Initiative with JISC through the Curriculum Design Programme. Activity Profile and Course Map. Trialed thoroughly.
Gráinne Conole continued this work with the JISC funded CARPE Dium learning design workshops at Leicester whiuch provides a ‘ rich storyboard of learning design’.
Overarching conceptual framework a lot of Cs here:
- Course features – the essence of it.
- Creative activity
- Combine – into course map and activity profile
- Consolidate – running it as face to face, or VLE, or more specialised learning design tool
or …. From Gráinne‘s blog:
|From E-Learning V|
With current thinking on 7Cs Various systems offered and can be tried.
Listening to OLDs MOOCers it appears that the 7Cs framework has been received well
- It articulates what teachers already do.
- There are 7 aspects in a whole design process.
- What level are you teaching, what level of support do they need etc:
- Teachers (all of us I would say, educators, learning designers, L&D managers) are bewildered by the range of tools, the range of approaches so fall back on their own content. So use the tools to think about the activities, the core essence of hte course.
- Indigenous Culture on locality.
- Introducing elements of serendipity.
- Activity profile
- Is it the right mix of learning for what you want the students to do.
- Correlation of time mapped out to what students are achieving … so she is poor at communication in Spanish … and there is little communication in the course she is doing.
Is this the right tool set?
- Covers all the aspects of design.
- Getting a taster for these in the course.
‘A huge amount in the MOOC is mix and pick, so take your time, come back to the resources. Six months down the line, you discover which ones you like’.
- Some love the activity profiles some don’t, so find the mix that works for you.
- Some with learning outcomes.
- Some with the content.
- Some with the characteristics of the context of the learners.
- Different tools will mean different things to different people.
‘We’re offering a Smörgåsbord of offerings that you can develop and use over time. Pick the ones that are relevant to you, don’t feel that you have to use all of them’.
(More coming up in WK 8 to act as a springboard to reflect)
- What is learning design?
- How has it come about?
- Why is it different to structural design?
2011 ALTC National Teaching Fellow
- Driven by people in Europe and colleagues in Australia.
- What is learning design? How has it come about?
- How is it distinct from instructional design?
- Major Epiphany moment Sept 2012
- Two days in Cyprus
- Timeline of key moments since 199 learning design
REF: Key books on design science (Dianna Laurillard) Teaching Design as a Science It’s aimed to be pedagogically neutral so that it can be used across a range of methodologies and pedagogies.
- Tools for guidance and support
- Tools for visualisation
- Tools for sharing like Cloudworks
What works for you
- It depends on the nature of how people want to go about things
- Connect and be sociable
- Open, unstructured … to form some kind of navigatable way through, as well as enjoying the serendipity. Having the options of the long and short routes.
- Is something more needed in the middle ground. B MOOCs.
‘Teachers want support and guidance to help them rethink their design practice, to think beyond content to and activities to make pedagogically informed design decisions that make good use of technologies’. Grainne Conole.
I’ve just been listening over the OLDs MOOC hangout for Week 3 and particularly enjoyed the Q&A with
The sentence above stood out from the 60 minutes, as well as how this was put into context for the MOOC in Week 3 and coming up in Week 8.
Personally I wish that we’d had something like this to begin the week. I got in early, did a couple of activities then followed the noise from the active design group I’ve joined. Give others a turn. Let things roll over. This works. Leave gaps and sometimes others will come along and think, OK, he’s done that so I can see how it works, or might work for me. I won’t bother with that tool, I’ll try something else and see what people make of it.
I cherry picked and as this hangout suggests and recommends; I’ll go back and pick out more as required.
I enjoyed downloading, colouring in, cutting out then using the Activity Cards. This is more my thing than the EXCEL spreadsheet – which I planned on a sheet of paper then transferred over. I might use an APP to generate such a thing. I find EXCEL somewhat heavy handed, or I’d want to design it in a way that I like. We learnt about the background to 7Cs. The background and context was invaluable. Credibility ought not be taken for granted. Work like this needs to be put on a pedestal and people told of its credentials and worth – i.e sell it to me!
Fig. 1. Activity Cards for curriculum planning downloaded from JISC
I’m very glad to be doing this OU hosted Massive Open Online Course on Learning Design
I have a couple of weeks in hand and desperately wanted to make and do stuff. I’ve joined one Cloudscape where the aim is to design learning on DIY Multimedia. I have three projects of my own too – not takers from others as they’re rather ‘out of the box’ – ideas around lifelogging, augmented learning and virtual companions.
This exercise I recommend. Indeed, I think getting away from the screen and using bits of paper, getting on the phone, not relying on webinars … and meeting face-to-face all makes sense.
OLD MOOC WK 3 Activity 2 Course Cards
Getting off the computer and into an activity, ideally a collaborative one, is always productive. A carefully moderated workshop can reveal the unexpected, more importantly it is an informed way to prioritize issues and to use a the combined expertise of a variety of people. From the OU Course B822 Creative Innovation and Change I learnt the value of constructing a team of people to address a problem – from different backgrounds, with different responsibilities and outlooks, even someone to rock the boat. No one person’s voice is allowed to override the views of others. Such a group would achieve a lot with this OULDI pack. Though game-like it is a valid and valuable tool.
Working alone there were a number of hurdles to overcome:
A black and white printer.
The sheets were printed off then painted. Not liking the look of the purple these cards all become yellow.
Ideally they would all be spray-glued to backing card to make them more robust – at least so that they don’t curl up at the edges.
On the first sweep I got the 38 number of cards down to 26. This was gradually reduced in 2s and 3s until there were the requisite 16.
Fig.2. Used a pairs table the 16 cards were ranked
Using a paired-sets in a table I was able to rank these 16 – clearly the exercise of discussing these with colleagues would have been extremely useful and the process of deliberation brought up issues of budget, resources and time-scale, and even refined the project as it is conceived and visualised as a certain number of activities.
Fig. 3. In rank order a diamond was created with the chosen cards.
- Problem Based
- Applied Concepts
- Mentoring in work-place
- Scaffolded learning
- Practice based
- Student generated content
- Day Schools
- Blended approach
- Authentic resources
- Practice placement
- Professional community
- Portfolio or e-portfolio
- Active discovery
- Step by step instruction
Choose a maximum of 12 cards from the pack which define the key features of your course or module.
|Step by step instructions||Guidance and Support|
|Mentoring in the workplace|
|Applied concepts||Content and Experience|
|Collaborative||Communication and Collaboration|
|Student generated content||Reflection and Demonstration|
|Portfolio or e-portfolio|
In terms of the module DIY Mutlimedia I become very aware of the value of learning alongside an expert, of being with skilled practitioners even – and very much the need to have a project brief to work to. So very much a hands on learning experience with authentic tools to create a real object or digital asset, or activity. This would also take the learners away from the computer screen, even out of the classroom into a design studio or agency. In fact the ‘Online’ card didn’t make it into the 16. Even though this is to develop skills in use of digital multimedia tools I felt I was organising a workshop for potters, painters and tapestry weavers i.e. there is a highly practical element to it and there’s nothing better than having a live guide at your shoulder … and if there has to be a compromise then it would be live or ‘as live’ instruction over the Internet.
My first career was in television – I got out of a graduate position in an advertising agency and became the ‘runner’ and ‘production assistant’ in a micro-production company. We were six and were down to three for most of the time. I learnt by latching onto an experience BBC Producer – so directing, producing and writing. Then on the job. In time I supplemented this with trade association workshops and some formal day or afternoon workshops. After four years I took a fulltime course. This exercise has made me see how much multi-media production is a craft skill – we may use keyboard and computer screens, but so do TV editors these days too. I’ve even used a broadcast video camera with iPad touchscreen like controls on the viewing monitor (nightmare!) … for someone used to buttons and knobs.
I have been hugely encouraged to get away from screens and be with people face to face despite believing in all things e-learning. Even major practitioners will talk about activities away from the screen, or phoning a friend or colleague … even expecting a phone call or a debriefing workshop. This is because those commissioning learning want results and will break away from the shoehorn of e-learning to do so … great for scale, great for compliance, but hardly ‘human’.
Perhaps the ‘e-‘ is coming detached from ‘learning’.
Learning is the thing, whether it is online, face to face, mobile or augmented. The ‘e’ has to stand for ‘effective’ – did it work! And student analytics and feedback will quickly tell you if you are getting it right or wrong.
Learning design, indeed any design, is about problem solving. If there isn’t a problem there is nothing to do.
No need to create learning, to advertise, to change, to brainstorm … recognise the problem then resolve to fix it. If this requires problem solving techniques just to get the scope of the problem, or objective set down, so be it. Then set about solving the problem, not shoehorning a response whether it is e-learning, video, a job description … but looking for the best, most appropriate or right way forward.
E-learning is no panacea.
There are still leaflets, workshops, conferences … Then research, write and agree a creative brief.
Then cost, schedule and build your team.
Then get on with it.
You might end up with the equivalent of a chair, a house or a small town … but it is fundamentally problem solving.
- Conole deakin seminar (slideshare.net)
Had this been the title of a post-graduate diploma in e–learning it would have been precisely what I was looking for a decade ago – the application of theory, based on research and case studies, to the design and production of interactive learning – whether DVD or online.
A few excellent, practical guides did this, but as a statement of fact, like a recipe in a cook book: do this and it’ll work, rather than suggesting actions based on research, evidence-based understanding and case studies.
Mayes and de Frietas (2004) are featured in detail in Appendix 1 of Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age (2007) Beetham and Sharpe.
Four types of learning are featured:
- 1. associative
- 2. constructive (individual)
- 3. constructive (social)
- 4. and situative.
Of these I see associative used in corporate training online – with some constructive (individual), while constructive (social) is surely the OU’s approach?
Situative learning may be the most powerful – through application in a collaborative, working environment I can see that this is perhaps describes what goes on in any case, with the wiser and experienced passing on knowledge and know how to juniors, formally as trainees or apprentices, or informally by ‘being there’ and taking part.
Each if these approaches have their champions:
Associative – Skinner, Gagné (1985).
Constructive (individual) – Piaget (1970), Papert (1993), Kolb (1984), Biggs (1999).
Constructive (social) – Vygotsky (1978).
Situative – Wenger (1998), Cole (1993), Wertsch. (Also Cox, Seely Brown). Wertsch (1981), Engestrom (), Cole and Engeström (1993)
Beetham and Sharpe (2007:L5987) – the ‘L’ refers to the location in a Kindle Edition. I can’t figure out how to translate this into a page reference.
How people learn and the implications for design
Associative – Skinner, Gagné (1985) (in Mayes and de Frietas, 2004)
Building concepts or competences step by step.
People learn by association through:
- basic stimulus–response conditioning,
- later association concepts in a chain of reasoning,
- or associating steps in a chain of activity to build a composite skill.
Associativity leads to accuracy of reproduction. (Mnemonics are associative devices).
- Routines of organized activity.
- Progression through component concepts or skills.
- Clear goals and feedback.
- Individualized pathways matched to performance.
- Analysis into component units.
- Progressive sequences of component–to–composite skills or concepts.
- Clear instructional approach for each unit.
- Highly focused objectives.
- Accurate reproduction of knowledge.
- Component performance.
- Clear criteria: rapid, reliable feedback.
- Guided instruction.
- Drill and practice.
- Instructional design.
- Socratic dialogue.
FURTHER READING (and viewing)
Brown, J.S. (2002) The Social Life of Information
Brown, J.S. (2007) October 2007 webcast: http://stadium.open.ac.uk/stadia/preview.php?whichevent=1063&s=31
+My notes on this:
+The transcript of that session:
Biggs, J (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University, Buckingham: The Society for Research in Higher Education and Open University Press. (Constructive alignment)
Cole, M. and Engestrom, Y. (1993) ‘A cultural-historical approach to distributed cognition’, in G. Salomon (ed.) Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations, New Work: Cambridge University Press.
Conole, G. (2004) Report on the Effectiveness of Tools for e-Learning, Bristol: JISC (Research Study on the Effectiveness of Resources, Tools and Support Services used by Practitioners in Designing and Delivering E-Learning Activities)
Cox, R. (2006) Vicarious Learning and Case-based Teaching of Clinical Reasoning Skills (2004–2006) [online], http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ esrcinfocentre/ viewawardpage.aspx?awardnumber=RES-139-25-0127 [(last accessed 10 March 2011).
Engeström, Y (1999) ‘Activity theory and individual and social transformation’, in Y. Engeström, R, Miettinen and R.-L. Punamaki (eds) Perspectives on Activity Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eraut, M (2000) ‘Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70:113-36
Gagné, R. (1985) The Conditions of Learning, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Gagné, R.M., Briggs, L.J. and Wagner, W.W. (1992) Principles of Instructional Design, New Work: Hoplt, Reihhart & Winston Inc.
Kolb, D.A. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as a Source of Learning and Development, (Kolb’s Learning Cycle) Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Kolb, D.A. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.
Littlejohn, A. and McGill, L. (2004) Effective Resources for E-learning, Bristol: JISC (Research Study on the Effectiveness of Resources, Tools and Support Services used by Practitioners in Designing and Delivering E-learning Activities).
Mayes, T. and de Frietas, S. (2004) ‘Review of e–learning theories, frameworks and models. Stage 2 of the e–learning models disk study’, Bristol. JISC. Online.
Piaget, J. (1970) Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child (Constructivist Theory of Knowledge), New Work: Orion Press.
Papert, S. (1993) Mindstorms: Children, Computers and Powerful Ideas, New Work: Perseus.
Piaget, J. (2001) The Language and Thought of the Child, London: Routledge Modern Classics.
Seely-Brown, J.S and Duguid, P. (1991) ‘Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: toward a unified view of working, learning and innovation’, Organizational Science, 2 (1): 40-57
Schon, D (1983) The Reflective Practioner: How Professional Think in Action, New York: Basic Books.
Sharpe, R (2004) ‘How do professionals learn and develop? In D.Baume and P.Kahn (eds) Enhancing Staff and Educational Development, London: Routledge-Flamer, pp. 132-53.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1986) Thought and Languages, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wertsch, J.V. (1981) (ed.) The Concept of Activity in Soviet Psychology, Armonk, N
Appendix and references largely from Beetham, H, and Sharpe, R (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy in a digital age.
See also Appendix 4: Learning activity design: a checklist
I would have found this invaluable commencing any of the Masters in Open and Distance Education Modules
Gagné’s model of instructional design
· Conditions of learning:
· Internal conditions deal with what the learner knows to prior to the instruction.
· External conditions deal with the stimuli that are presented to the learner
Kind of outcomes to be achieved
1. Verbal Information
2. Intellectual Skills
3. Cognitive Strategies
5. Motor Skills
Organise appropriate instructional events.
Gagne’s events of instruction:
1. Gaining attention
2. Informing the learner of the objective
3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning
4. Presenting the stimulus material
5. Providing learning guidance
6. Eliciting the performance
7. Providing feedback
8. Assessing the performance
9. Enhancing retention and transfer
Khadjoo. et al (2011:117)
In relation to teaching psychomotor skills:
1. Gaining attention
· Capture attention and arouse interest
· An abrupt stimulus
· A thought-provoking question
· Visual or sound stimulus (or multimedia)
2. Informing the learner of the objective
· Set learning objective
· Expectancy and motivation
· Identify, prepare, understand, perform and understand.
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning
Associating new information with prior knowledge and personal experience and getting the learners to think about what they already know to facilitate the learning process. Khadjoo. et al (2011:117)
· Interactive discussion
· Ask questions, consider findings and confirm evidence.
Presenting the stimulus material
· New content presented
· Meaningful organisation
· Explanation and demonstration
· How to, position, monitor, test …
Khadjoo. et al (2011:118)
Providing learning guidance
· Correct performance
· Additional suggestions
· Use of examples (case studies)
· Graphical representations, mnemonics, add meaning …
Eliciting the performance
· The learner practices the new skill or behaviour.
· Confirmation of understanding
· Repetition to increase retention
· Individual and immediate feedback and guidance
· Questioned answer
· Feedback from other learners
Assessing the performance
· Demonstration of what they have learned (no additional coaching or hints)
· Additional practice required
Enhancing retention and transfer
· Practice (Before, during and after)
· Spaced reviews
· Transfer of knowledge to new problems
· Practice, rest and repeat
o Available resources
o Institutional constraints
o Number of learners (their characteristics and preferences)
Gagne, R, Briggs L, Wager W, eds. (1998) Principles of instructional design. 3rd edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Khaji, K, Rostami.K. How to use Gagne’s model of instructional design in teaching psychomotor skills. Gatroenterology and Hepatology. 4(3) 116-119
Picking through the OU Library for something on Gagné I found two great articles:
However, no one can tell me how to put an acute accent on Gagné (neither of these reports did so).
And how to put an umlaut on Engeström.
I ask as I am fed up having this pointed out in every assignment I submit.
Picking through the Open University Library for something on Gagné I found two great articles: