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This has significant implication on how we learn, the reasons why we learn (or have to be taught), how we are tested formerly in an assessment or exam, and critically, how what we have learnt is applied.
A Level 3 Coaching course I am taking with the ASA relies on too much theory (rushed workshops in meetings rooms in leisure centres, but note poolside). We submit assignments. These are handwritten into forms. Marking takes months and plagiarism is rife. Whilst how we are taught and how we are tested match, there is little correlation to what we do poolside with athletes. It is neither applied nor situated.
Lawyers live by the written word; I can see that reading, writing and exams suit how they will act in practice.
What about elearning? Or mlearning? Learning online, whether from a desk or a mobile device (smartphone or tablet) has the potential to take the lesson into the situation where this knowledge is required. Swimming coaching and teaching ought to be be taught ‘just in time’ with bitesize learning before and after (even during) swimming sessions.
There are many training situations where the lesson is best taught, as if by a supervisor shadowing an apprentice in the workplace. In this way the lesson taught is associated with the problem that is being dealt with as it arises.
If I study everything online, at a screen, typing at a QWERTY keyboard I should be assessed in the same way, which in the MAODE is exactly what happens: I type out assignments and upload them for marking. I get the ‘paper’ back a file with annotations.
Coming to the end of B822 I find myself having to pick up a pen. The prospect is that I will be tested, old school, writing three essays in three hours into a blank workbook.
B822 BK 2 C6 Precepts
Especially actions that DISCOURAGE speculation/creativity Henry (2010:93)
|Curiosity||Charles Handy (1991) Creativity in Management, Radio 1, B822|
|Forgiveness||Charles Handy (1991)|
|Love||Charles Handy (1991)|
|A sense of direction||Schon, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner|
Some ‘Set Breakers’ Henry (2010:96)
1. Develop broad background experience and many interests
2. Find and challenge your own blind spots
3. Explore many different perspectives
4. Challenge yourself
5. Develop good browsing facilities
6. Change techniques or different mental modes
7. Seek out people with other points of view
8. In a group
1. Dry Run
2. Quota of alternatives
3. Inverse optional question
4. Checklist of transformations
5. Reverse the problem
6. Boundary relaxation
7. What difference?
8. Get several people to try it
9. Deep questioning
11. Fresh eye
6.4 Value of Play
1. Play is key to learning activity
2. The objects of play are both objective and subjective
3. The ability of play helps create the sense of independence.
4. Play offers a protected area of illusion
5. Plays is a way of managing unfulfilled need.
6. Play can lead to a particular state of mind.
7. Play breaks down outside certain emotional limits.
8. Shared play builds relationships
A. Choice of Setting
B. Choice of team members
C. Climate to aim for
D. Don’t demystify
E. Management of coping mechanisms
F. An aid to team building
· Problem finding (experience)
· Map building
· Janusian Thinking
· Controlling and not controlling
· Using domain and direction
· Planning rather than goal-directed planning
· Humour that oils
· Using ad hoc structures such as task force and project teams
· Using a core group embedded in a network of contracts and information
· ‘Turbulence management’
N.B. Creativity needs space vs. time pressure, interruption
· Create Space
6.8 involve others
The more participants you have, the more ideas you get.
‘Successfully creative people are often deeply committed to a particular domain, that has strong internal significance to them, and they focus very firmly on particular goals’. (e.g. Tessa Ross, Lionel Wigram, William Hague)
‘Passion and persistence can motivate sustained work; attract the loyalty of helpers; create awareness of you and your project in people who have relevant resources; and reassure those who need to take risks on your behalf.’ Henry (2010:114)
- Blind chance
- Wide-ranging exploration
- The prepared mind
- Individualised Action
6.12 Manage the Process Henry (2010:1113)
· Get the parameters right
· Sustain pace and energy
· Develop trust
· Keep the experience positive
· Do – analyse either side and separately
Learn from experience of others
Adams, J.L. (1987) Chase, Chance and Creativity: The Lucky Art of Novelty; New York; Columbia University Press.
Austin, J.H. (1978) Chase, Chance and Creativity: The Lucky Art of Novelty: New York: Columbia University Press.
McCaskey, M.B. (1988) ‘The challenge of managing ambiguity’, in Pondy, L.R, Boland, R.J and Thomas, H (eds) Managing Ambiguity and Change, new York, pp 2-11
Schon, A.A. (1983) The Reflective Practioner: How Professionals think in Action, London: Temple Smith
Wetherall, A. and Nunamaker, J (1999) Getting Results from Electronic Meetings
Winnicott, D.W (1972) Playing and Reality. Harmondsworth (1983) Davis, M and Wallbridge, D (1983) Boundary and Space: An Introduction to the Work of D.W. Winnicott. Harmondsorth.
CHAPTER 1 CREATIVITY (pp13-30)
What a fool. I always thought of business as boring.
I was a creative, an actor or performer, a writer or director, a visualiser. Yet beyond the antics of the undergraduate each of these can only happen in the context of a business: they have to be financed. Perhaps for too long I toyed unsuccessfully with the idea of being alone in a space with paints or pens (actually a MAC and a Wacom board).
I take notes, pen onto paper, while reading from an iPad. I will get home and find a box of books and will then read from paper and take notes on the iPad. My inclination is to have TWO tablets, one in my left hand to read (a Kindle if it will take the PDFs) the iPad under my right hand so that I can type in notes as I go along.
- developments so fast that they are unpredictable.
- expect the unexpected (Handy, 1991)
- increasing competition
- increasing pace of change
- need to add value through continual innovation
- creativity, knowledge & innovation over capital, labour & land
- growth in value of intangible assets
I can see that B822 complements H807 ‘Innovations in E-learning’.
In truth this already is closer to what I perceived H807 would be as there is substantial use of audio and video.
Table 1.0 Innovations with major impact on human history
I want to return to this, add to it and include images.
Plenty will be available under Creative Commons and Google Images.
ACTIVITY 1.1 How would I define creativity?
Innovative problem solving (business, technical, communications, aesthetic) with the outcome a product or artefact that is unique and possibly challenging or controversial.
WHAT ASSOCIATIONS DOES CREATIVITY HAVE FOR YOU?
The arts and media, from TV to film and music, theatre, art, books, ceramics and sculpture to creativity in commerce with advertising and architecture. Even putting up a pedestrian bridge can be a creative endeavour. Or making a sandcastle.
WRITE DOWN WORDS AND PHRASES THAT IT SUGGESTS TO YOU
illustration Design Copywriting Inventiveness Innovative Clever Head turning Memorable Unique Controversial Skilled
ALSO THINK OF:
Problem solving (appropriate) New Novelty is relative Lasting impact
WHAT DO YO THINK CAUSES CREATIVITY, AND WHERE DO NEW IDEAS COME FROM?
In adverting a creative team, a copywriter and art doctor sit together to come up with ideas to sell a product based on a Creative Brief that answers the question ‘what is the problem?’ in this respect creativity is about solving problems, indeed movie producers and directors define film making as solving problems. Greyson Perry, the ceramicist, argues that ‘creativity is mistakes’, indeed creativity needs to be a challenge and a risk if the requisite innovation is to occur. For me creativity therefore comes from the desire to overcome a problem, which applies as much to composing a new song, writing copy or a book, designing a new machine, simplifying source code, drawing a sel-portrait, even making a meal with left-overs from the cupboard.
Creativity can be taught and engendered in everyone. The ‘genius’ is rarely born with a god-given gift, often a parent has pushed them to acquire and practice skills from a very early age. The successful ‘creative’ may well put in far more hours than Others, even possess a keener, more urgent desire and curiosity.
1950s an ability 1960s mental flexibility 1970s relevant experience 1980s intrinsic motivation 1990s work culture
(Engestrom’s ideas of activity systems are worth bringing in here).
Think about two or three people fro the worlds of: Science: Prof. Brian Cox – his ability to communicate the complex in a clear and memorable way. Art: Stephen Appleby – transvestite cartoonist. Caravagio, but perhaps not the Pre-Raphaelites. Jackson Pollock, Salvador Dali and Picaso. Music: Bjork – weird and wonderful, Gary Neuman, David Bowie … Business: Dyson – from the cyclone vacuum cleaner to the air-blade. Sport: George Best – I don’t even follow football but at times his skill looks inventive, playful and in control. Some skiers and skaters. Literature: Haruki Murakami – he has a voice of his own. Henry Miller, Will Self … And any others: The Saatchis for their advertising in the 1980s; Terry Gilliam and the Monty Python Team. Fashion: Jean-Paul Gaultier – how he dresses, what he design. Architects such as Richard Rogers and Zaha Hadid.
QQ. What do I think is creative about them or what they produce?
It can be outrageous, it works, it solves a problem, it leaves a lasting impression. They may be extrovert, outrageous self-publicists or introvert, even quite ‘normal’ like James Dyson, Terrance Conran or John Hegarty (Bartle Bogle, Hegarty). They persevere, they are confident or know no better than to be themselves writ large. They learnt their trade from the bottom up and stuck with it.
Think of someone creative people you know, and from work: a friend, relative or child.
What sort of people are they and how do they do thing?
They are observers and can be set apart. They can be egotistical and rubbish at time keeping and the everyday and mundane. They think a lot. They draw upon multiple references. They are highly intelligent. They may be troubled souls in conflict with themselves and the world. They care about their craft skills. Are they performers of sorts seeking cognition as well as reward for what they do? They are the first to do it? They are focused and goal driven.
But the truth, in a business setting might be quite different, with the ‘creative’ in this setting the good listener and team player?
Handy, C. (1991) ‘The Age of Unreason’ in Henry (1991)
Henry, J., Mayles, D., Bell, R., et al (2010) Book 1, Creativity, Cognition and Development.