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Some more contemporary theories of learning – all stages including the workplace
Engestrom Y, (2006) Learning by expanding. An activity theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki. Orienta–Konsultit.
Expansive Learning. The idea of internal contradictions of change, with a model of learning activity based on horizontal, not vertical learning and ‘knotworking’ whereby the nodes and collective ownership of learning changes.
Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics for learning.
Learning that is top down and stems from:
Lave and Wenger (1991) Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge.
Learning comes about from participation in culturally valued practices in which something useful is produced – though participation and acquisition alone cannot be enough to make major change. Engestrom p61
Bateston (1972) Steps to an ecology of mind: collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution and epistomelogy. New York. Ballantine Books.
When it comes to learning on campus think about the ‘hidden curriculum of what it means to be a student’.
Intuition in creative decision making in business
In management decision-making:
Perception, Intuition, tacit knowledge and apprehension of Eastern cultures have a role to play. (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995)
Logic, precision and evidence has been the way of the West.
N.B P56 the unconscious has a role to play.
Neurones and dendrites.
Plasticity: though as metaphors go I prefer paths through a wood, rather than water on a jelly (de Bono). Telegraph, to analogue telephone, to high-speed internet broadband might be even better.
What we see is very much affected by what we expect to see.
P57 (how does this impact on a trial several years after the event?)
We recreate images of past events anew on each occasion. p57
i.e. No one has a photographic memory. People’s recollection of events change years after.
And we find it easier to recall memories laid down in a particular state. e.g. recalling a dream can be as easy as positioning yourself in bed as you were when you had the dream. (Prepare for an exam by revising and testing yourself in exam-like conditions?)
p62 Our memory of how to do things is often tied to the situation in which it was learnt.
N.B. The importance of intuitive decision-making that can assimilated information that is too complex to verbalised.
P65 Mintzberg (1975, 1996) use of intuition by managers. Isenberg (1987) managers often by-pass rigorous, analytical planning altogether, particularly when they difficult, novel, or extremely entangled problems.
For the next week keep a record of any intuitions and hunches you have, and note what led you to recognise them.
Keep a diary of intuitive judgements and decisions you make, and subsequently note whether or not you were proved right.
P76 ‘It seems we have a strong tendency to apply rules mindlessly, which means we easily miss new approaches.
P78 People perform close to their labels. Research shows. (So never label a person or child).
P84 the unconscious mind often fails to match, particularly where information is incomplete.
Claxton, Going Beyond cleverness: how to be smart without thinking.
Nonaka, I and Takeuchi , H ‘Oraganizational knowledge creation’.