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Just what is qualitative research?

I stumbled upon this paper which looked rather handy in relation to qualitative and quantitative research.

Qualitative Research

Research begins at the other end, pursues patterns of cause and effect by replicating possible experiments in controlled settings …

Quantitative Research

Investigates a priori hypotheses, examines what people are doing and how they interpret what is occurring …

The understanding and use of the information is a social phenomenon defined by time, place, persons, and events. These understandings were unearthed through the ethnographic, qualitative process. (Morse, 1984)

Interviews, generally open ended, usually included (Morse, 1994):

  1. experience-behavior questions,
  2. opinion-value questions,
  3.  probes of the interviewee’s feelings,
  4. requests for factual information,
  5.  sensory types of questions, such as what the interviewee saw or heard, 6) background-demographic queries,
  6. time-frame questions. I wanted the interview to help me understand the situation from the perspective of the interviewee.

(Biklen & Moseley, 1988; Goetz & LeCompte, 1984; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Patton, 1983; Spradley, 1980; Stainback & Stainback, 1988).

“The fundamental principle of qualitative interviewing is to provide a framework within which respondents can express their understandings in their own terms” . (Patton, 1983, p. 205).

Naturalistic Research Paradigm

To ensure that I did not impose my bias on the information, I corroborated my findings by triangulation–the convergence and analysis of multiple data sources. (Morse 1994)

My awareness of myself as an influence is a basic principle in qualitative research (Blumer, 1969; Bogdan & Biklen, 1982; Goffman, 1959; Guba, 1985; Miller, 1982; Perinbanayagam, 1985a, 1985b; Spradley, 1980; Stainback & Stainback, 1988; Strauss, 1987). (Morse 1994)

Qualitative research tools as triangulations, notes, and transcripts are empty exercises until and unless the people–the focus of the research–trust the researcher. (Morse 1994)

Therefore, conducting qualitative research is like walking into the wilderness: Some trails are well trodden, whereas others not visible at first sight. The map, which helps a group to decide which forks to take, becomes clearer as each person interviewed and observed along the path suggests turns to take. In keeping with the principles of qualitative research, I saw myself as a catalyst to help people put their thoughts into words. As a consequence, I felt an obligation to go with the paths they suggested, even when these differed from ones I wished to explore. The choice was always dictated by my interactions with the participants in the study and by their perceptions and their concerns.

Truth “comes not from the thing itself but rather from the interpretation given to it by a person” (Stainback & Stainback, 1988).

FURTHER READING

International Journal of Qualitative Methods

REFERENCE

Agostinho, S. (2004). Naturalistic inquiry in e-learning research. International Journal of Qualitative methods, 4(1), Article 2. Retrieved [insert date] from http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/ 4_1/pdf/agostinho.pdf

Lincoln, Y. & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

(From Amazon on this frequently cited ‘bible’ Naturalistic Inquiry provides social scientists with a basic but comprehensive rationale for non-positivistic approaches to research. It confronts the basic premise underlying the scientific tradition that all questions can be answered by employing empirical, testable, replicable research techniques. The authors maintain that there are scientific `facts’ that existing paradigms cannot explain, and argue against traditional positivistic inquiry. They suggest an alternative approach supporting the use of the `naturalistic’ paradigm.)

Morse, MT 1994, ‘Just what is qualitative research? One practitioner’s experience’, Journal Of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88, 1, p. 43, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 13 February 2013

Stainback, S. & Stainback, W. (1988). Understanding and conducting qualitative research. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Wiggins, BJ 2011, ‘Confronting the dilemma of mixed methods’, Journal Of Theoretical And Philosophical Psychology, 31, 1, pp. 44-60, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 13 February 2013.

 

The idea of gathering a substantial part of one’s life experience fascinates me, as it has often inspired others


Fig. 1. Hands by Escher.

The danger is for it to become one’s modus operandi, that the act of gathering is what you become. I recall many decades ago, possibly when I started to keep a diary when I was 13, a documentary – that can no doubt now be found on the Internet – on a number of diarists. There were not the well-known authors or celebrity politicians, but the obscure keeper of the heart beat, those who would toil for two hours a day writing about what they had done, which was to edit what they’d written about the day before … if this starts to look like a drawing by Escher then perhaps this illustrates how life-logging could get out of hand, that it turns you inside out, that it causes implosion rather than explosion. It may harm, as well as do good. We are too complex for this to be a panacea or a solution for everybody.

A myriad of book, TV and Film expressions of memory, its total recall, false recall, falsehoods and precisions abound. I think of the Leeloo in The Fifth Element learning about Human Kind flicking through TV Channels.

Fig. 2. Leeloo learns from TV what the human race is doing to itself

Always the shortcut for an alien to get into our collective heads and history. Daryl Hannah does it in Splash too. Digitisation of our existence, in part or total, implies that such a record can be stored (it can) and retrieved in an objective and viable way (doubtful). Bell (2009) offers his own recollections, sci-fi shorts and novels, films too that of course push the extremes of outcomes for the purposes of storytelling rather than seeking more mundane truth about what digitization of our life story may do for us.


Fig. 3. Swim Longer, Faster

There are valid and valuable alternatives – we do it anyway when we make a gallery of family photos – that is the selective archiving of digital memory, the choices over what to store, where to put it, how to share then exploit this data. I’m not personally interested in the vital signs of Gordon Bell’s heart-attack prone body, but were I a young athlete, a competitive swimmer, such a record during training and out of the pool is of value both to me and my coach.

I am interested in Gordon Bell’s ideas – the value added, not a pictoral record of the 12-20 events that can be marked during a typical waking day, images grabbed as a digital camera hung around his neck snaps ever 20-30 seconds, or more so, if it senses ‘change’ – gets up, moves to another room, talks to someone, browses the web … and I assume defecates, eats a meal and lets his eyes linger on … whatever takes his human fancy.

How do we record what the mind’s eye sees?

How do we capture ideas and thoughts? How do we even edit from a digital grab in front of our eyes and pick out what the mind is concentrating on? A simple click of a digital camera doesn’t do this, indeed it does the opposite – it obscure the moment through failing to pick out what matters. Add sound and you add noise that the mind, sensibly filters out. So a digital record isn’t even what is being remembered. I hesitate as I write – I here two clocks. No, the kitchen clock and the clicking of the transformer powering the laptop. And the wind. And the distant rumble of the fridge. This is why I get up at 4.00am. Fewer distractions. I’ve been a sound engineer and directed short films. I understand how and why we have to filter out extraneous noises to control what we understand the mind of the protagonist is registering. If the life-logger is in a trance, hypnotized, day dreaming or simply distracted the record from the device they are wearing is worse than an irrelevance, it is actually a false cue, a false record.

Fig. 4. Part of the brain and the tiniest essence of what is needed to form a memory

Mind is the product of actions within a biological entity. To capture a memory you’d have to capture an electro-chemical instance across hundreds of millions of synapses.


Fig. 5. Diving of Beadnell Harbour, 1949. My later mother in her teens.

An automatically harvested digital record must often camouflage what might have made the moment a memory. I smell old fish heads and I see the harbour at Beadnell where as a child fisherman brought in a handful of boats every early morning. What if I smell old fish as I take rubbish to recycle? Or by a bin down the road from a fish and chip shop. What do my eyes see, and what does my mind see?

I love the messiness of the human brain – did evolution see this coming?

In ‘Delete’ Mayer-Schönberger (2009. p. 1) suggests that forgetting, until recently was the norm, whereas today, courtesy of our digital existences, forgetting has become the exception.

I think we still forget – we don’t try to remember phone numbers and addresses as we think we have them in our phone – until we wipe or lose the thing. In the past we’d write them down, even make the effort to remember the things. It is this need to ‘make an effort’ to construct a memory that I fear could be discombobulated.

I’m disappointed though that Mayer-Schönberger stumbles for the false-conception ‘digital natives’ – this is the mistaken impression that there exists a generation that is more predisposed and able than any other when it comes to all things digital. Kids aren’t the only ones with times on their hands, or a passion for the new, or even the budget and will to be online. The empirical evidence shows that the concept of a digital native is unsound – there aren’t any. (Jones et al, 2010., Kennedy et al, 2009., Bennet and Maton, 2010., Ituma, 2011)

The internet and digital possibilities have not created the perfect memory. (Mayer-Schönberger 2009. p. 3)

To start with how do we define ‘memory’ ?

A digital record is an artefact, it isn’t what is remembered at all. Indeed, the very nature of memory is that it is different every time you recall a fact or an event. It becomes nuanced, and coloured. It cannot help itself.

Fig. 6. Ink drops as ideas in a digital ocean

A memory like drops of ink in a pond touches different molecules every time you drip, drip, drip. When I hear a family story of what I did as a child, then see the film footage I create a false memory – I think I remember that I see, but the perspective might be from my adult father holding a camera, or my mother retelling the story through ‘rose tinted glasses’.


Fig. 7. Not the first attempt at a diary, that was when I was 11 ½ . ‘A day in the life of … ‘ came to a close with breakfast after some 500 words.

I kept a diary from March 1973 to 1992 or so. I learnt to write enough, a few bullet points in a five year diary in the first years – enough to recall other elements of that day. I don’t need the whole day.

The power to remember and the need to forget

Fig 1. Your life? Remembered or forgotten?

Digitally record or better to delete?

INTRODUCTION

It frustrates me to try to read two complementary books e in two different formats – the first is marketed in its traditional hardback edition with a designer cover and eye-grabbing introduction from Bill Gates, while the second, an eBook I find understated – as if it is ashamed to compete. They are a pair. Twins separated at birth. They argue from opposite sides of the digital coin, one in favour of digitizing everything under the sun, the other for circumspection and deletion. Perhaps there should be a face off at the Oxford Union Debating Society. My role here is to bring them together and in doing so provide a one word conclusion: selection.

TOTAL RECALL

‘Total Recall’ (Bell and Gemmel, 2009) with its film-reference title and sensationalist headline ‘how the e-memory revolution will change everything’ risks ostracizing a discerning academic readership in favour of sales reputation and coining a phrase or two. It’s hero Gordon Bell might be the protagonist in the movie. The is is shame is that at the heart of what is more biography than academic presentation there is the desire to be taken seriously – a second edition could fix this – there needs to be a sequel. My copy of Total Recall arrived via trans-Atlantic snail mail in hardback, with it’s zingy dust jacket – it feels like a real book. I’m no bibliophile but I wonder if the pages are uncut and this edition has been pulled from a reject pile. It was discounted Amazon and as I’m after the words contained in the book rather than the physical artifact its state ought not to be a concern. Though the fact that it is a physical book rather pegs it to a bygone era. Total recall refers to the idea of a photographic or ‘eidetic memory’ – this needs to be stated.

Fig. 2. DELETE

‘Delete’ (2009) Viktor Mayer-Schönberger is subtitled ‘The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age’ and sounds as if it was authored by a vampire from Transylvania. It is a foil to ‘Total Recall’ with Viktor the antagonist to ‘Flash Drive’ Gordon. Delete hasn’t been – its in its fourth printing, needless to say I got mine in seconds as a Kindle version. I only ever by a book if I have to. I am too used to the affordances of the eBook to skim, search, highlight and share – and to have it on multiple devices, the Kindle, iPad, laptop and smartphone.

The copyright notice in Total Recall on ‘the scanning, uploading, and distribution of this book via the Internet’ is ironic because this is what Bell does with his life – he has scanned and uploaded his life (though access is totally private). A double irony as he elects for Web 1.0 but won’t join the Semantic Web 2.0 and share.

I have been an exponent of ‘exposure’ – the release of a substantial part of who you are for others to chew over.

The online diary.

The way forward stands between the two, selective extreme gathering, storing and retrieval of your personal archive, while discretely deleting the irrelevant, possibly illegal (copyright, plagiarised, libel) and otherwise potentially reputationally damaging to kith or kin. (How can these be avoided if you wear a device around your neck that takes a digital snap every few seconds?)

They could be landform and landfill.

 

Augment Reality used on mobile (smart phones) for learning purposes.

English: Wikitude - location-based Augmented R...

English: Wikitude – location-based Augmented Reality explained. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

‘What was once seen by many as being a mere gimmick with few applications outside of training, marketing/PR or sport and entertainment, is now becoming more mainstream with real opportunities for it to be used for educational purposes’.  FitzGerald et al (2012)

 

‘One of the most compelling affordances of AR is its resonance with immediate surroundings and the way in which information can be overlaid on top of these surroundings, enabling us not only to learn about our environment but also giving us the tools to annotate it’. FitzGerald et al (2012)

 

‘Being able to augment one’s immediate surroundings with electronic data or information, in a variety of media formats that include not only visual/graphic media but also text, audio, video and haptic overlays’. FitzGerald et al (2012)

 

  • Context
  • Explicit intentions

 

‘Mobile AR brings in new aspects: most importantly, it fosters the mobility of the user; their geographical position; the physical place where learning can occur (and also a means to bridge these different places); it can also enable formal learning to connect with informal learning’. FitzGerald et al (2012)

 

  • a portable experience
  • which lends itself to both personal and shared interactions.

 

Problems

 

  • Internet Access
  • Accuracy (outside 10m)
  • Loss of signal/bandwidth
  • Cost of equipment
  • Battery life
  • Sunlight (or artificial light indoors)
  • Durability (water, physical damage)
  • Compromised learning to cope with the limitations of the device
  • Device sharing or loss

 

Opportunities

 

  • Appeal to students of using their devices (Lickin and Stanton Fraser, 2011)
  • Personalised learning through kit and software tools
  • Independent learning
  • Encourages problem solving
  • Collaboration through synchronised interaction
  • Eyetap technology in Google Glass
  • Exploitation of ‘dead time’ (Petit and Kukulska-Hulme, 2007)

 

‘Most noteworthy to teachers was how the technology-enhanced curriculum enacted students’ identities as problem solvers and knowledge builders rather than as compliant consumers of
information…”.’ (Squire, 2010)

 

CONCLUSION

 

What is clear is that we currently have the opportunity to provide immersive, compelling and engaging learning experiences through augmented reality, which are situated in real world contexts and can provide a unique and personal way of making sense of the world around us. FitzGerald et al (2012)

 

REFERENCE

 

FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Adams, Anne; Ferguson, Rebecca; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay and Thomas, Rhodri (2012). Augmented reality and mobile learning: the state of the art. In: 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2012), 16-18 October 2012, Helsinki, Finland (forthcoming).

 

Luckin, R. and Stanton Fraser, D. (2011). “Limitless or pointless? An evaluation of augmented reality technology in the school and home.” International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning 3(5): 510-524.

 

Pettit, J. and Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2007). “Going with the grain: mobile devices in practice.” Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 23(1): 17-33.

 

Squire, K. D. (2010). “From Information to Experience: Place-Based Augmented Reality Games as a Model for Learning in a Globally Networked Society.” Teachers College Record 112(10): 2565-2602.

 

 

More on ‘Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age’.

Why does the OU put the novice and expert together in the MAODE?

Although I praise this approach and after two years have been a beneficiary I wonder if the research points to the need for greater flexibility and mixing, more akin to several cohorts of students being able to move around, between their own tutor group, contributing to discussions with the newcomers while also being able to hobnob with the experts?

The learning theory that I am coming to understand does not favour a fixed approach. It isn’t simply a case of playing to the individual, though this is certainly very important as some people will favour being the teacher or the taught, or simply relish periods when they sit at the feet of the expert or stand up in front of newcomers. Rather it is apparent that people learn well within a peer group of like-minds, with people at a similar stage to themselves while having planned opportunities to hear and participate with ‘great minds’ while also from time to time contributing to the efforts and feeding off the enthusiasms of the ‘new minds’. Nothing is fixed, neither learning vicariously (Cox), or learning from the periphery to the centre (Seely Brown).

Stage one of my approach to reading these days is to highlight, even share quotes and notes on Twitter as I go through a book.

I then type up my notes and add further thoughts either by cutting and pasting from the aggregates notes in my Twitter feed (eBooks don’t allow you to cut and paste) or from handwritten notes I take on cards.

Then I share my notes here, tagged so that I can revisit and others can draw on my notes too or take the hint and read the chapter or book for themselves.

This too is but a stage – next step is to wrap up my developing thoughts, comments and other conversations and put a version of this entry into my external blog my mind bursts.

Sometimes an exchange here or elsewhere develops my thinking further – today I will be sitting down with a senior learning designer, one of five or six in the office of an international e-learning agency to talk learning theory and educational principles.

Chapter 2

Regarding Quality Assurance – there should be no inconsistencies between:

  • Curriculum
  • Teaching methods
  • Learning environment
  • Assessment procedures

So align assumptions:

  • Learning outcomes
  • Suitable assessment

N.B. Each outcome requires a different kind of theoretical perspective and a different pedagogical approach. L757

(Easy to say in theory, not so easy to deliver in practice?)

Three clusters of broad perspectives:

  • Associationism
  • Behaviourism
  • Connectionism

Associationist: gradual building of patterns of associations and skill components. Therefore activity followed by feedback.

Simple tasks prerequisites to more complex.

Gagne (1985 and 1992)

  • Instructional task analysis of discrimination, classifications and response sequences.
  • Simpler tasks built step by step followed by coordination to the whole structure.

Instructional Systems Design

  • Analyse the domain into a hierarchy of small units.
  • Sequence the units so that a combination of units is not taught until its component units are grasped individually.
  • Design an instructional approach for each unit in the sequence.

Then add:

  • Immediate feedback
  • Individualization of instruction

Behaviourism: active learning by design. Immediate feedback on success, careful analysis of learning outcomes, alignment of learning objectives.

The Cognitive Perspective

  • Attention
  • Memory
  • Concept Formation

Knowledge acquisition as the outcome of an interaction between new experiences and the structures for understanding that have already been created. Therefore building a framework for learning vs. learning as the strengthening of associations.

Piaget (1970) Constructivist Theory of Knowledge.

‘Conceptual development occurs through intellectual activity rather than by the absorption of information’. L819

Vygotsky (1928:1931) Importance of social interaction.

Interactions – that e-learning teams call ‘interactivities’.

The Situative Perspective

  • Learning must be personally meaningful
  • Authentic to the social context

(problem-based learning and cognitive apprenticeship). L862

The concept of community practice

Wenger (1998) identify as a learner derived from the community. (Aspires, defines, accredited).

Mayes et al (2001) learning through relating to others. E.g. Master Class

Social-anthropological belonging to the community. L882.

Beliefs, attitudes, common endeavour, also ‘activity systems’ Engestrom 1993

Learning relationships

Identify, participate, individual relations. Dependent on: context, characteristics and strength of relationships in the group (Fowler and Mayes, 1999) L902

What was exotic in 2007 in common place today?

See Appendix 1 L912

Learning as a cycle through stages.

J F Vernon (2011) H809 assignments and end of module assessment. The concept of riding a thermal of gently rising circles.

Various references L923.

Fitts and Posner (1968)

Remelhart and Norman (1978)

Kolb (1984)

Mayes and Fowler (1999)

Welford (1968)

If ‘as it proceeds from service to expert, the nature of learning changes profoundly and the pedagogy based on one stage will be inappropriate for another’. L923

Fowler and Mayes (1999)

Primary: preventing information

Secondary: active learning and feedback

Tertiary: dialogue and new learning.

REFERENCE

Beetham, H and Sharpe, R. (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age: Designing and delivering e-learning.

Cole, M and Engestrom, Y (1993) A cultural-historical approach to distributed cognition. In G.Salmon (ed.) Distributed cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations, New York, CVP.

Cox, R. (2006) Vicarious Learning and Case-based Teaching of Clinical Reasoning Skills (2004–2006) [online], http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ esrcinfocentre/ viewawardpage.aspx?awardnumber=RES-139-25-0127 [(last accessed 10 March 2011).

Gagne, R (1985) The conditions of learning. New York. Holt, Rhinehart and Wilson.

Jonassen, D.H. and Rohrer-Murphy, L (1999) ‘Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environments’. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47 (1) 61-80

Valuable lessons in leadership and management style can be learnt from sports coaching

I’m reading through this (again) two years after attending the Module 5, Amateur Swimming Association Level 3 Senior Club Coach workshop at the Commonwealth Pool, Manchester. The session was run by the former Ireland Olympic IM Swimmer Julie Douglas (now at Chelsea & Westminster SC I believe).

As well as the book and my notes (and copious notes, Julie was studying for a PhD so was more than able to supply references, several of which I’ve followed up and downloaded courtesy of my being an Open University student with access to an enormous digital catalogue) I am doing through the Level 3 Resources too.

Wonderful that there is overlap with personality types from the Open University MBA Module B822 ‘Creativity, Innovation & Change’ and from an educational perspective the Masters in Open & Distance Education (MAODE) that I have nearly completed.

What is creativity? Hear from Andrew Marr and his guests on BBC Radio 4

BBC Radio 4 on Creativity

Start the week with Andrew Marr.

JONAH LEHRER ‘Imagine’ How creativity works.

  • A universal property of human nature (though it doesn’t mean we are all equally good at it). Jonah Lehrer.

What is creativity?

A different kind of mental activity to sweating it out at the office, or the ‘ah ha’ moment in the shower. the epiphany.

Bob Dylan and his moment of insight (May 1965) when he least expected it (or wanted it), after a year long tour he took a break.

  • The cortex sharing a secret with us. Jonah Lehrer.

What are the mental states and moods. Relaxed. Daydreaming is important, why a walk without the iPhone, a flight without the laptop, even in the bath is a place to tap into unconscious awareness.

Testament to unconscious ideas.

Value of collaboration, being surrounded by the right people, the big city, the ‘cluster’, such as Shakespeare moving to London (what was it about the 1580s and 1590s in London?).

Can we recreate another age of genius?

Grit. Single-mindedness. Persistance. Putting in the 10,000 hours.

JOANNA KAVENNA

Joanna Kavenna is a novelist.

Preparing for the ‘great out pouring’ then the potentially gruelling, striving.Defamiliarising yourself.

SCANNER

Robin Rimbaud – aka Scanner

Neurons firing, the heart beating. The social interactions that feed into this world.

Neuroscience confirms what we had always thought was necessary or going on, such as Coleridge going for walks (or Steve Jobs).

  • Easily distracted.

A wall chart showing 22 projects. A morning, an afternoon and an evening session then quit.

RACHEL O’REILLY

Dr Rachel O’Reilly is a research fellow in the Chemistry Department at the University of Warwick.

A chemist. How to take a material and improve it. Problem solving for a company, the ‘audience’ we report back to, or funders, another ‘audience’.

And here’s a creative team to die for:

Steve Jobs and Pixar

Breaking out of the mindset

Preposterous process of ‘growing a baby’ and a new encounter breaks you out of your mindset and habit.

Childhood play and do i.e. ‘playfulness’ compared to the business-like ‘job’ at a desk (even at a keyboard).

If you are at all successful, you are then expected to reproduce what you did before and the habitual way you work becomes a habit. Andrew Marr. (And what publishers/the public expect and want).

A writer and a musician want to change their voice.

Being in the right place at the right time.

The ‘Semilweis knee-jerk reaction’.

[While doing some of this at Connect Wisdom]

Peak ages of creativity

  • Poetry early 30, like Physicists.
  • Novelists mid 40s
  • Caused by ‘enculturation’.
  • So always try new things, constantly risk reinvention.
  • Painters peak late.
  • Historian late.

Imposed archetypes

Inestimable confluences of influences. The writer who is obsessed with reading other people’s works as well as writing.

Exploring the science of creativity

 

‘Blurring of the boundaries between school and college, formal and informal education, learning for work and learning at work.’

Notes from Kindle version on an iPad. Bias for H800 ECM with the emphasis on Forums and Mobile forms of learning.

Beetham, H and Sharpe, R. (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age: Designing and delivering e-learning.

Forward

Phase between ‘ICT-free’ past and its ‘ICT-aware’ future. L.289 Laurillard (2007)

Education is currently learning and adapting to the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies. Laurillard (2007)

There are learning objectives, on the one hand, to be achieved by the student, but also objectives set by society regarding higher education: ‘personalised learning, higher attainment standards, wider participation and improved retention in further and higher education, closer relationships between education and the workplace, lifelong learning, a more highly skilled workforce for our knowledge economy.’ L.295. Laurillard (2007)

The problem is that transformation is more about the human and organisational aspects of teaching and learning than it is about the use of technology. L322 Laurillard (2007)

REFERENCE

Laurillard, D. (2007) in Beetham, H and Sharpe, (6) ‘Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: designing and delivering’.

Chapter 1

‘Blurring of the boundaries between school and college, formal and informal education, learning for work and learning at work.’ Beetham & Sharpe (2007:01)

Do we want to teach students, or for students to learn?

N.B. ‘Pedagogy before technology’ i.e. don’t use the technology for the sake of it. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:02)

What are the fundamental truths about how people learn?

New forms of literacy over ‘the acquisition of a stable body of knowledge.’ Beetham & Sharpe (2007:05)

Design involves:

· Investigation

· Application

· Representation or modelling

· Iteration

· Set clear expectations

· Provide engaging activities

· Key elements of practice, feedback and time for consolidation

· Assessment

· Simpler tasks prerequisites for more complex tasks

· Review

Beetham & Sharpe (2007:08)

Behaviourism = active learning-by-doing with immediate feedback on success, the careful analysis of learning outcomes, and above all with the alignment of learning objectives, instructional strategies and methods used to assess learning outcomes. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:16)

Not just activity, but ‘intellectual activity’

REFERENCE

Piaget (1970) rather than by the absorption of information. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:17). NOT by osmosis, if on the periphery (Seely Brown) or learning ‘vicariously’ (Cox) it has to be with some level and kind of intellectual participation.

Rapid development of multimedia and hypermedia in the 1980s and 1990s.

Then delivery.

Since the Web, converged on communications ‘as a key-enabling construct’. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:18)

Situated and constructivist:

Learning must be personally meaningful. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:18)

Community of practice and the individual’s relationship with a group of people. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:18)

Learning as a cycle through stages with each cycle focusing on different perspectives. (Fitts and Posner 1968; Rumelhard and Norman 1978; Kolb 1984; Mayes and Fowler 1999) And iterative. Welford (1968)

As ‘Learning’ proceeds from novice to expert, the nature of learning changes profoundly and the pedagogy based on one stage (learning as behaviour, learning as the construction of knowledge and meaning, learning as social practice) will be inappropriate for another. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:21) Wherein lies the problem regarding use of technology, as students will often be at very different levels of expertise regarding the use of the tools.

FORUM / SOCIAL LEARNING

Learners in the role of teachers of their peers. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:22)

Dichotomy: standardization through an institutional virtual learning environment (VLE) compared to empowering learners to take responsibility ‘to the point that they make their own design decisions’. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:21)

+Meaning through ‘engagements with the social setting and peer culture surrounding it’. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:22)

The internet gives every course in every institution a potentially global span. Beetham & Sharpe (2007:23)

REFERENCE

Piaget, J. (1970) Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child, New York: Orion Press.

Fitts, C.J.H. and Posner, M.I. 1967 Human Performance, Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Rumelhard, D.E. and Norman, D.A. 1978 ‘Accretion, tuning and structuring: three modes of learning’, in J.W. Cotton and R.I. Klatzy (eds) Semantic Factors in Cognition, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kolb, D.A. 1984 Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Mayes, J.T. and Fowler, C.J.H. 1999 ‘Learning technology and usability: a framework and usability: a framework for understanding courseware’, Interacting with Computer, 11:485-97.

Welford, A.T. (1968) Fundamentals of Skill, London: Methuen.

Assessment should be in line with the individual’s learning objectives. How many of us are learning to be the writers of academic papers? Most are practitioners, many managers, I am a commentator. I want to be journalistic.

Goleman asks what makes an effective leader

What makes a highly effective leader?

SELF-AWARE

Initiative Strategic Vision A thirst for constructive criticism A self-depreciating sense of humour Play to strengths. But most important of all Emotional intelligence.

SELF-REGULATE VS Impulsive behaviour.

Self-regulation that frees us from being prisoners of our feelings (2006:126) Creating an environment of trust.

MOTIVATION

Motivated to achieve. Passion for the work itself Keep track of scores. Committed to the organisation

EMPATHY

Thoughtfully considering the employees feelings. Coaching and feedback.

SOCIAL SKILLS and rapport

N.B. emotional intelligence can be taught.

REFERENCE Goleman, D (1998) What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, November, 93-102

How is the internet changing the way we think? The Digital Scholar: Publishing (Martin Weller)

Publishing

• Research

• Authoring

• Submission

• Rejection/modification

• Publication

• Dissemination

WHY?

• Accepted practice

• Academic respectability

• Reward and tenure

• Dissemination

• Curation

NB Bellow’s Law

‘Once the journal has been liberated from the printed format, a number of related assumptions begin to unravel and lead to more fundamental questions.’

22,000 peer reviewed journals from 9,900 publishers.

Questioning the scholarly communication process … Often the current model does not stand up to scrutiny.

The trucker’s deal Wiley 2009b

McGuigan and Russell (2008) Deutsche Bank on how 7,000 people in academic publishing add value to justify 40% margins – they don’t.

Advantages of open access publishing Harnad (2005)

• Early advantage

• Arxiv advantage

• Quality bias

• Quality advantage

• Competitive advantage

• Usage advantage

Weller’s POV

• Citation advantage

• Time lag to publication

• Copyright

• Alternative publishing methods

Desire for greatest impact and widest dissemination (without compromising its quality or findings).

VS. Time to publication due to peer review and a print mentality that restricts number of items in a journal and how often it is published.

Creative commons keeps rights with the author.

Alternative methods for communication, publishing and debate which are more rewarding.

The traditional article begins to seem remote and dry in comparison.

Google knowledge web-based authoring.

PLoS hubs

New forms of representation and communication.

Shift from filtering on the way into filtering on the way out. Weinberger (2007)

As they are the product of public funding they should be out there.

We’re at a transition state, and Weller gives in ten years for the change to occur. I see it differently as one of the early aeronauts looking out across at English Channel wanting to cross as soon as the weather permits knowing that I may just make it, wait ten years and others will be looking to cross the Atlantic.

Ware (2008) reasons to peer review (for free)

• To play your part as a member of the academic community

• To enjoy being able to improve the paper

• To enjoy seeing Newquay work ahead of publication

• To reciprocate the benefit when others review your postings.

Towards the ‘approbation of discerning readers’. Martin Rees (2010)

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